Saturday, December 16, 2006

Free Spanish Lesson 1

Free Basic Spanish. BASIC SPANISH
I. hablar, to speak. (you are learning Spanish for FREE)
Singular 1. habl-o I speak, I am speaking, I do speak 2. habl-as you speak, you are speaking 3. habl-a he or she speaks, is speaking, does speak. Plural 1. habl-amos we speak, we are speaking, we do speak. 2. habl-áis you speak, are speaking, do speak. 3. habl-an they speak, are speaking, do speak.
II. comer, to eat (remember to roll your r)
Singular 1. com-o I eat, I am eating, I do eat. 2. com-es you eat, are eating 3. com-e he or she eats, is eating, does eat Plural 1. com-emos we eat, we are eating. 2. com-éis you eat, are eating. 3. com-en they eat, are eating.
III. vivir, to live
Singular 1. viv-o I live, I am living, I do live. 2. viv-es you live, you are living. 3. viv-e he or she lives, is living. Plural 1. viv-imos we live, we are living. 2. viv-ís you live, are living. 3. viv-en they live, are living.
Spanish nouns have two genders, masculine and feminine.a. Names of male beings are masculine and names of female beings are feminine. b. Nouns ending in -o are for most part masculine. c. Nouns ending in -a are for most part feminine. d. mano, 'hand', however', is feminine and día, 'day', is masculine. e. Nouns ending in -ión, -tad, -dad, are always feminine:
leccíon, lesson edad, age libertad, liberty
f. Nouns of Greek origin, ending in -ma, -ta, are masculine:
planeta, planet poema, poem cometa, comet sistema, system
25. Plural of Nouns.
a. Nouns ending in an unstressed vowel or diphthong form their plural by adding -s to the singular:
casa (house) casas libro (book) libros agua (water) augas
b. Nouns ending in a stressed vowel or diphthong, or in a constant, add -es:
rubí (ruby) rubíes flor (flower) flores ley (law) leyes árbol (tree) árboles
The above rules have some exceptions:1. The days of the week which end in -es (lunes, 'Monday,' etc.) remain unchanged in plural. 2. Family names also remain unchanged:
Martínez, los Martínez, 'the Martínez.'
3. Some nouns ending in accented vowels add -s instead of -es:
mamá mamás pie (foot) pies papá papás canapé (couch) canapés
c. Nouns ending in c and z changes these endings to qu and c,respectively, before adding -es:
frac (frock) fraques luz (light) luces
26. Some nouns are used in the masculine plural for both genders, and some of these with special meanings:
niños, children or little boys hijos, son(s) and daughter(s) or sons padres, parents or fathers reyes, king(s) and queen(s) or kings hermanos, brother(s) and sister(s) or brothers muchachos, boy(s) and girl(s) or boys
Articles vary in form for gender and number The following forms are found:
('the') Singular Plural Masc. el (padre) los (padres) Fem. la (madre) las (madres)

('a','an'; plural 'some', 'a few'). Singular Plural Masc. un(o) (padre) unos (libros) Fem. una (madre) unas (casas)
You are Learn'n Spanish for FREE.
a. Before a feminine noun beginning with accented a or ha, the masculine form el is used not la:
el auga, the water el hacha, the ax
The change does not take place when an adjective intervenes:
la buena agua, the good water
b. With prepositions a ('to,' or sign of the personal object, see 44), and de ('of,' 'from'), the following contractions take place:
a + el = al Habla al padre. He speaks to father de + el = del la casa del padre, the father's house
c. The definite article has also a neuter singular form lo, used with the masculine singular of adjectives to form abstract noun phrases.
lo bueno y lo malo, the good and the bad
d. Unos, unas, may mean also 'a pair (of).'
unos zapatos, a pair of shoes. unas medias , a pair of stockings.
35. Use of Articles.
a. The definite article is used in spanish (but not in English):1. With general or abstract nouns.
El hombre es mortal. Man is mortal. [remember, hombre means man]Las madres aman a sus hijos. Mothers love their children. La vanidad es mala. Vanity is bad.
2. With titles of address in the third person.
El señor Martínez habla. Mr. Martínez is speaking. El señor profesor viaja ahora The professor is travelling now But in direct address:Señor Martínez, pase V. Mr. Martínez, come in
3. With names of countries and provinces when modified by adjectivesor adjective phrases.
la América del sur, South America la Francia moderna, modern France la bella California, California (the) beautiful
With names of some countries and cities the article is always used:
el Brasil el Perú el Ecuador la Habana
4. With the names of the days of the week, of the seasons and other expressions of time (never with the months of the year).
Carlos come aquí los lunes. Charles eats here Mondays. El verano es largo. Summer is long. la semana pasada. last week. el mes próximo, next month
b. The indefinite article is ommited in Spanish (but not in English) with unmodified nouns used predicatively:
Es maestro He is a teacher Es médico He is a doctor But: Es un médico muy bueno He is a very good doctor
c. The articles are repeated in Spanish before the different nouns they modify:
el padre y la madre, the father and mother los libros y las plumas, the books and pens
subject pronouns are the following:
(Don't forget to roll the r's)
Singular Plural yo, I nosotros, m.nosotras, f. } we tú, you vosotros, m.vosotras, f. } you él, heella, she ellos, m.ellas, f. } they usted, you ustedes, you
The subject pronouns are ordinarily omitted in Spanish (see 16), but they may be used for emphasis. In the third person they may be used for learness, since the third person may have three meanings:
habla = { él habla, he speaks. ella habla, she speaks. usted habla, you speak.
Usted, however is used for politeness, even when emphasis and clearness are not demanded. Usted and Ustedes are ordinarily abbreviated V., VV., or Vd., Vds.
43. Use of Usted and tú. The ordinary, formal, second person pronoun of address is usted, pural ustedes, which takes the third person of the verb (since it is derived from vuestra merced = 'your grace'). This is the form which must be used in addressing strangers, persons not well known, and old people. The pronoun tú, plural vosotors, -as, which corresponds, grammartically, to the English, 'thou,' 'ye,' is used only among intimate friends and relatives, or on speaking to children and servants or inferiors.
44. Direct Object with a. The preposition a is used also, in Spanish, as a sign of the direct object, when the direct object of the verb is a noun indicating a definite person, or persons or a thing personified:
Él ama a los niños. He loves the children. Ella ve a su padre. She sees her father. Busco a mi criado I am looking for my servant. Él no teme a la muerte. He does not fear death (perfsonified). But: Busco un criado. I am looking for servant (indefinite).
a. Querer means 'to wish' or 'desire,' while querer a may also mean 'to love'.
Yo quiero comer. I wish to eat. Ella quiere a Carlos She wants or loves Charles.
b. Tener (see below) means 'to have,' 'to possess,' while tener a may also mean 'to hold temporarily.'
Tienen al caballo. They are holding the horse
45. The Irregular Verb tener, 'to have,' 'to possess.'
PRESENT INDICATIVE Singular 1 you tengo I have 2 tú tienes you have 3. { él tieneella tieneusted tiene he hasshe hasyou have Plural 1 nosotros (-as) tenemos we have 2 vosotros (-as) tenéis you have 3 { ellos, ellas tienenustedes tienen they haveyou have.
Nouns denoting Living Beings. Many nouns denoting living beings have masculine forms ending in -o or -e and corresponding feminine forms ending in -a:
el hijo, the son. la hija, the daughter. el hermano, the brother. la hermana, the sister. el niño, the little boy. la niña, the little girl. el muchacho, the boy. la muchacha, the girl. el amigo, the friend. la amiga. el criado, the servant. la criada. el maestro, the teacher. la maestra. el monje, the monk. la monja, the nun. el pariente, the relative. la parienta.
Adjectives agree in gender and number with the nouns to which they relate.
una nueva pluma, a new pen. nuevos libros, new books.
The plural of the adjective is formed exactly as is the plural of the noun. (See 25.) When the masculine singular of the adjective ends in -o, the feminine singular is formed by changing o to a.
alto, alta, high. bueno, buena, good.
If the masculine singular does not end in -o most adjectives have the same form for both genders.
pobre, m. and f. pobres, m. and f., poor. azul, m. and f. azules, m. and f., blue.
However, adjectives of nationality ending in a consonant, and adjectives ending in -án and in -or (not from a Latin comparative), add -a to form the feminine.
español, española españoles, españolas, Spanish. holgazán, holgazana holgazanes, holgazanas, lazy. traidor, traidora traidores, traidoras, treacherous.
62. Position of Adjectives. The adjectives in Spanish may precede or follow the noun. As a general rule, they follow the noun, especially in the case of long adjectives, proper adjectives, adjectives used emphatically, or of any adjective which is used to call attention to some individual object, separating it from other more or less similar objects.
un paisaje pintoresco, a picturesque landscape. una casa blanca, a white house. los libros españoles, the Spanish books. el hombre bueno, the good man (i.e., the man who is good).
a. Certain short, weak, much-used adjectives, and certain adjectives used merely for poetic effect precede the noun.
un buen niño, a good child. un mal hombre, a bad man. la blanca nieve, the white snow.
For emphasis, however:
un niño bueno. un hombre malo.
b. Numeral adjectives and adjectives of quantity usually precede the noun.
tres libros, three books. el segundo tomo, the second volume. mucho dinero, much money. poca carne, little meat.
63. Certain adjectives have two meanings, a literal meaning when they follow the noun, and a figurative or poetic meaning when they precede it.
un hombre pobre, a poverty-stricken man. un pobre hombre, an unfortunate man. un hombre grande, a big (tall) man. un gran hombre, a great man. mi tinta negra, my black ink. mi negra suerte, my hard fate.
64. When a noun is limited by two or more adjectives the position of each is decided upon independently and according to the preceding rules. The last two of a series of adjectives are usually connected by the conjunction y.
Ha empleado un buen secretario español. He has employed a good Spanish secretary. blancos e inmovibles fantasmas, white and motionless phantoms. un poblachón destartalado, antiguo, ruinoso e insufrible, an intolerable old town, neglected and in ruins.
The following adjectives lose the final -o of the masculine singular when they immediately precede their noun:
bueno, good. ninguno, no, none. malo, bad. primero, first, at first. uno, one, an. tercero, third. alguno, some, any. postrero, last. un buen muchacho, a good boy. el primer libro, the first book. el tercer día, the third day.
a. Grande may become gran when before a noun of either gender, meaning 'great' or 'grand.'
un gran artista, a great artist. una gran obra, a great work.
b. Santo becomes san before the masculine singular name of a saint, except before names beginning with Do, To.
San Juan, Saint John. San Andrés, Saint Andrew.
Santo Domingo, Saint Dominic. Santo Tobías, Saint Tobias.
c. Ciento, 'hundred,' becomes cien before the noun it modifies.
cien libros, a hundred books. cien sillas grandes, a hundred large chairs. cien buenos caballos, a hundred good horses. cien mil hombres, a hundred thousand men.
With numerals above one hundred ciento is used.
ciento cincuenta, a hundred and fifty. ciento diez, a hundred and ten.
71. Adjectives used as Substantives. Adjectives are very frequently used in Spanish as substantives, taking the gender and number of the noun understood.
el viejo, the old man. los viejos, the old people, or the old man and the old woman. los buenos, the good (i.e., those who are good), the good people. la niña alta y la pequeña, the tall girl and the little one. La suerte de la fea la bonita la desea. The pretty girl desires the lot of the ugly one.
72. Nouns of Material. The material of which a thing is made is expressed by the preposition de followed by the noun of material.
un sombrero de paja, a straw hat. una corbata de seda, a silk tie.
73. Verbs with a before an Infinitive. The following verbs take the preposition a before an infinitive form of another verb (see also 406):
aprender, to learn. ir, to go. comenzar, to begin. enseñar, to teach. venir, to come. volver, to return. Aprendo a hablar español. I am learning to speak Spanish. Viene a trabajar. He comes to work.
Irregular Verbs decir, ir, poder, querer, venir.
Present Indicative a. decir, to say b. ir, to go digo, I say, etc. voy, I go, etc. dices vas dice va decimos vamos decís vais dicen van c. poder, to be able, can d. querer, to wish puedo, I am able, etc. quiero, I wish, etc. puedes quieres puede quiere podemos queremos podéis queréis pueden quieren e. venir, to come vengo, I come, etc. venimos vienes venís viene vienen
In the past descriptive indicative, decir, poder, querer, venir, are regular: decía, podía, quería, venía, etc. The only verbs in the language which are irregular in this tense are ser, ver, and ir (see 95, 493). The past descriptive of ir is:
iba, I was going, etc. íbamos ibas ibais iba iban
Idiomatic Expressions 80.
¿Qué quiere decir? What does it mean? ¿Qué quiere decir mesa? What does mesa mean? ¿Cómo se dice eso en español? How do you say that in Spanish? ¿Cómo está V.? How are you? muy bien, gracias, very well, thank you. buenos días, good morning. buenas noches, good night. buenas tardes, good afternoon. adiós, good-by. está bueno or está bien, very well, all right. vamos, come, let us go, well. vamos a ver or a ver, let us see. es necesario, it is necessary. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Idiomatic Expressions 80.
¿Qué quiere decir? What does it mean? ¿Qué quiere decir mesa? What does mesa mean? ¿Cómo se dice eso en español? How do you say that in Spanish? ¿Cómo está V.? How are you? muy bien, gracias, very well, thank you. buenos días, good morning. buenas noches, good night. buenas tardes, good afternoon. adiós, good-by. está bueno or está bien, very well, all right. vamos, come, let us go, well. vamos a ver or a ver, let us see. es necesario, it is necessary. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Irregular Past Absolute 86. In the irregular past absolute the accent falls on the stem in the first and third persons of the singular. Elsewhere it falls on the ending. In the regular past absolute the stress falls on the ending throughout. See 471.
87. Past Absolute of decir, ir, poder, querer, venir, tener.
a. dije, I said b. fuí, I went c. pude, I was able, dijiste fuiste pudiste [I could] dijo fué pudo dijimos fuimos pudimos dijisteis fuisteis pudisteis dijeron fueron 1 pudieron d. quise, I wished e. vine, I came f. tuve, I had quisiste viniste tuviste quiso vino tuvo quisimos vinimos tuvimos quisisteis vinisteis tuvisteis quisieron vinieron tuvieron
1 The past absolute of ser is the same as that of ir. See 95.
88. IDIOMS with tener.
a. tener frío, to be cold. yo tengo frío, I am cold, etc. tener calor, to be warm. tener hambre, to be hungry. tener sed, to be thirsty. tener miedo, to be afraid. tener razón, to be right. usted tiene razón, you are right, etc. tener sueño, to be sleepy. tener ganas, to be desirous, to wish, feel like.
Tener miedo, tener razón, tener ganas are followed by the preposition de before the infinitive, which may complete their meaning:
Tengo miedo de hablar. I am afraid to talk. Usted no tiene razón de (also para) quejarse. You have no reason to complain, or you are not right in complaining. No tengo ganas de ir. I do not care to go.
b. ¿Cuántos años tiene la niña? How old is the little girl? Tiene doce años. She is twelve years old. María tiene veinte años. Mary is twenty years old.
c. ¿Qué tiene V.? What is the matter with you? Tengo dolor de cabeza. I have a headache. No tengo nada. Nothing is the matter with me.
d. El niño tiene la cabeza larga. The child has a long head, or the child's head is long. La niña tiene ojos negros. The girl's eyes are black. Yo tengo la barba negra. My beard is black. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Ser and Estar 95. The verbs ser and estar are irregular.
Present Indicative ser, to be estar, to be soy, I am, etc. estoy, I am eres estás es está somos estamos sois estáis son están

Past Descriptive Indicative era, I was, etc. estaba, I was, etc. eras (regular) era éramos erais eran
Past Absolute Indicative fuí, I was, etc. (like the past absolute of ir, 87) estuve, I was estuviste estuvo estuvimos estuvisteis estuvieron
96. Meaning of ser and estar. Ser and estar, usually translated by 'to be,' are never synonymous. Primarily, ser is a copula, equivalent to a sign of equality, while estar (Latin stare, 'to stand') expresses position in space or time. It follows, therefore, that:
1. Ser expresses what is permanent or inherent, while estar expresses what is temporary or accidental.
2. Ser expresses qualities, while estar expresses conditions.La leche es de color blanco y la tinta es de color negro. Milk is of white color and ink is black color.Ella es pálida. She is pale (of pale color).Ella está pálida. She looks pale (now).Es borracho. He is a drunkard.Está borracho. He is drunk.La noche estaba muy bonita. The night was very beautiful.El hombre es pequeño. The man is small (of small stature).La niña está todavía pequeña. The little girl is still small (temporarily).El hielo es frío. Ice is cold (a cold commodity).El café está frío ahora. The coffee is cold now.La cocina es grande. The kitchen is large.La cocina está limpia. The kitchen is clean.El libro es francés. The book is French.El libro está sobre la mesa. The book is on the table.Las rosas son hermosas. Roses are beautiful.Las rosas están secas. The roses are dry (have become dry).
a. Ownership and origin are always expressed by ser.La casa es de mi padre. The house is my father's.¿De quién son los libros? To whom do the books belong?Mi amigo es de España. My friend is from spain.La carta era de Madrid. The letter was from Madrid.El reloj es de oro. The watch is of gold.
b. When the predicate is a noun, ser is likewise used.Mi tío es médico. My uncle is a physician.La vaca es un animal doméstico. The cow is a domestic animal.
c. The location of a person or thing, whether permanent or temporary, is expressed by estar.La universidad está cerca de Palo Alto. The university is near Palo Alto.La casa está en al campo. The house is in the country. El río de Misuri está en los Estados Unidos. The Missouri river is in the United States.
d. Some adjectives have one meaning when used with ser and another meaning when used with estar, ser indicating character and estar indicating health.
ser bueno, to be good. estar bueno, to be well (in good health) ser malo, to be bad. estar malo, to be ill.
e. Estar is also frequently used with the present participle to form the progressive tenses (435). In most cases the Spanish progressive and absolute tenses are interchangeable.Estoy hablando (o hablo). I am talking.¿Qué está diciendo? What is he saying?Estábamos estudiando. We were studying.
The future tense corresponds, generally, to the English future. Idiomatically it is used to express probability or conjecture in present time or to give to the object of the verb or to the predicate nominative a general or indefinite meaning:
Mi amigo estará ya en Nueva York. My friend is probably already in New York. ¿Cuántos años tendrá? About how old is he? Tendrá veinte años. He is probably twenty years old. ¿Para qué será esto? I wonder what this is for? ¿A qué irá? I wonder what he is going for? ¿Dónde está él? Estará en su casa. Where is he? At home, I suppose.
104. The conditional usually translates the English conditional should or would:
Compraría la casa. I would buy the house (if I were able to do so). Dijo que iría. He said he would go.
Idiomatically, the conditional expresses probability or conjecture in past time (see also 103):
Serían las diez cuando llegó. It was probably ten o´clock when he arrived. ¿Qué sería ese ruido? I wonder what that noise was? ¿Qué tendría él ayer? I wonder what was the matter with him yesterday?
The participles are formed on the present stem.
a. The past participle is formed by adding -ado in the first conjugation and -ido in the second and third.b.The present participle is formed by adding -ando in the first conjugation and -iendo in the second and third.
Infinitive Past Participle Present Participle I habl-ar hablado, spoken hablando, speaking II com-er comido, eaten comiendo, eating III viv-ir vivido, lived viviendo, living
c. The present participle corresponds, in general, to the English present participle, and may be used to express progressive action:
Yo no estoy hablando. I am not talking. ¿Qué estaba diciendo? What was he saying?
111. The Verb haber. Haber, ' to have,' is principally used as an auxiliary verb to form the compound tenses. It is never used for tener to express possession.The present indicative of haber is:
he hemos has habéis ha, hay han
The past descriptive indicative of haber is regular:
había, habías, etc.
Learn the past absolute of haber, 471.
112. The Present Perfect Tense. The present perfect tense is formed from the present indicative of haber and the past participle.
he venido I have come, I came has venido you have come, you came ha venido he or she has come, you have come, etc. hemos venido we have come, etc. habéis venido you have come, etc. han venido they or you have come, etc.
The use of the Spanish present perfect tense corresponds in general to that of the English present perfect, but it may also be used for the Spanish past absolute, especially in referring to recent past action.
Ayer lo ví (or lo he visto). I saw him yesterday. He comprado dos caballos. I (have) bought two horses.
113. The Past Perfect Indicative. The past perfect indicative is formed from the past descriptive indicative of haber and the past participle: había hablado, I had spoken; habías hablado, you had spoken, etc. It corresponds in general to that of the English past perfect.
Todavía no había llegado cuando ví la casa. I had not yet arrived when I saw the house.
a. The second past perfect indicative, formed from the past absolute of haber and the past participle, hube hablado, etc., is rarely used except after conjunctions of time.
Cuando hubo hablado se sentaron. When he had spoken, they sat down.
114. Impersonal Use of haber. In the infinitive, participle, and third person singular, haber is used impersonally with the meaning ' to be.' For ha, hay is used.
Aquí no hay sillas. There are no chairs here. ¿Qué había en la caja? What was there in the box? Habrá un concierto. There will be a concert.
Idioms with Tener, Deber, and Haber 121. Tener que. Tener que followed by the infinitive expresses obligation or necessity.
Tengo que estudiar mi lección. I have to study my lesson. Teníamos mucho que hacer. We had much to do. ¿Tiene V. que ir ahora? Do you have to go now?
a. Moral obligation is more commonly expressed by deber (122).
b. Tener que may also denote mere provision.
No tenemos que comer. We have nothing to eat.
122. Deber. Deber means primarily ' to owe.' From this are derived the ideas of necessity, obligation, duty.
Debo ir a ver a mi padre. I must go and see my father. Debí estudiar ayer. I ought to have studied (it was my duty to study) yesterday.
a. Deber followed by the infinitive is also used to express probability. See also 103.
Debe estar malo. He is probably ill.
123. Haber de. Haber de followed by an infinitive expresses (a) what is probably true in present time, (b) mere futurity, (c) volitional futurity.
a. Ha de ser muy rico. He must be very rich. Ha de ser Carlos. It is probably Charles. See 103 and 114. b. Ha de venir mañana. He is coming to-morrow. Han de dar un paseo. They are to take a walk. c. He de castigarte si lo haces. I will punish you if you do it. He de verla. I must see her (it is my intention to see her).
124. Haber que. Haber que as an impersonal verb (see 114), followed by an infinitive, expresses also necessity, obligation, or mere futurity.
Hay mucho que estudiar. There is much to be studied. Hay que hablar con cuidado. One must speak with care. Para llegar a tiempo hay que ir aprisa. To arrive on time we must hurry.
125. The Infinitive after Prepositions.
a. The infinitive is generally used in Spanish after a preposition where the present participle is used in English.
Vine sin verlo. I came without seeing him. Tengo ganas de ir. I am desirous of going. Después de comer, se fué. After eating, he went away.
b. ' On,' ' when,' ' as ' + a present participle is translated by al + the infinitive.
al llegar a la casa, on arriving (when we arrived, etc.) at the house. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Irregular Verbs. Hacer and Haber used Impersonally 131. The verbs dar, ' to give,' hacer, ' to do, make,' poner, ' to put,' saber, ' to know,' ' to know how.'
Present Indicative Singular Plural 1st Pers. 2d Pers. 3d Pers. 1st Pers. 2d Pers. 3d Pers. doy das da damos dais dan hago haces hace hacemos hacéis hacen pongo pones pone ponemos ponéis ponen sé sabes sabe sabemos sabéis saben
Of all the above forms only those in the first person singular, doy, hago, pongo, sé, are irregular. The past descriptive indicative of all these verbs is regular. See 79.Learn the past absolute of the above four verbs, 471, 476.
The first has the endings of the second and third conjugations, while the last three are irregular past absolutes.In the future indicative and conditional dar is regular. Learn the irregular futures and conditionals of hacer, poner, saber, 470 d.The past participles of hacer, poner, are hecho, puesto, 494.
132. Hacer and haber are used impersonally to express the state of the weather. Haber may be used only in speaking of visible phenomena.
Hace frío, hizo frío. It is cold, it was cold. Hace buen tiempo. It is good weather. Hace calor, hará calor, etc. It is warm, it will be warm, etc. Hace fresco. It is cool. Hace mal tiempo, hacía mal tiempo, etc. It is bad weather, it was bad weather. Hay sol, habrá, sol, etc. It is sunny, it will be sunny, etc. Hay luna, hubo luna, etc. The moon is shining, the moon was shining, etc. (lit., there is moon, there was moon, etc.).
133. Hacer and Haber are also used impersonally in the sense of ' ago.' Haber is commonly used only in the present form ha, following the expression of time. Hacer is used throughout the conjugation and usually precedes the expression of time.
Hace un año que vivo aquí. I have been living here for a year. Also: Vivo aquí desde hace un año. Le ví una semana ha, le ví hace una semana, or le ví desde hace unasemana. I saw him a week ago. Hacía un año que estaba allí. I had been there for a year. ¿Cuánto hace que vive usted aquí? How long have you lived here? Mañana hará dos años que la ví. It will be two years to-morrow since I saw her. Hace un mes que salieron, or salieron desde hace un mes. They left a month ago. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Personal Pronouns 139. The subject, direct object, and indirect object forms of the personal pronouns are:
Singular Subject Direct Object Indirect Object 1 yo, I me, me me, me, to me 2 tú, thou, you te, thee, you te, thee, you, to thee, to you 3 { él, he, it le, lo, him, it le, him, to him, it, to it ella, she, it la, her, it le, her, to her, it, to it usted, you { le, lo (masc.),la (fem.),you le, you, to you
Plural Subject Direct Object Indirect Object 1 nosotros, -as, we nos, us nos, us, to us 2 vosotros, -as, you, ye os, you, ye os, you, to you 3 { ellos, they (masc.) los, them les, them, to them ellas, they (fem.) las, them les, them, to them ustedes, you { los (masc.),las (fem.), you les, you, to you
a. For the use of the subject pronouns see Lesson IV.
b. The direct object pronoun of the third person of the masculine singular has two forms, le and lo. According to some grammarians le is used for persons and lo for things, but this rule is not generally observed. Either le or lo may be correctly used, whether referring to persons or to things.
c. In addition to the above forms there are found also the form les for los and the forms la, las for le, les (fem.), but these are all rare and condemned by the grammar of the Spanish Academy (edition of 1913).
d. Since usted, ustedes may be masculine or feminine, their object pronoun forms are (dir. obj.) le, lo, los, (indir. obj.) le, les, like the object forms of él, ellos; or (dir. obj.) la, las, (indir. obj.) le, les, like the object forms of ella, ellas:
Usted (Carlos) está alli; le or lo veo y le hablo. You are there; I see you and I speak to you. Usted (María) está allí; la veo y le hablo. You are there; I see you and I speak to you. Ustedes (Manuel y Carlos) están allí; los vemos y les hablamos. You are there; we see you and we speak to you. Ustedes (María y Mercedes) están allí; las vemos y les hablamos. You are there; we see you and we speak to you.
e. A neuter form ello, objective case lo, is used to refer to a general idea or phrase.
Ello es que llegó. The fact is that he arrived. No lo creo. I do not believe it. Convengo en ello. I agree to it. ¿Es bueno? Lo es. Is it good? It is.
140. Position of Object Pronouns.
a. The personal object pronouns regularly precede the verb forms.
Él me da el libro. He gives me the book. Nos vieron. They saw us. ¿Los compró él? Did he buy them?
b. With the infinitive, the present participle, and the positive imperative, however, the pronouns follow the verb forms and are attached to them. Examples:
Vino sin verios. He came without seeing them. Comprándolos, buying them. Dame el libro. Give me the book. (Pos. impv.) Déme el libro. Give me the book. (Subj. used for pos. impv.)
c. When the infinitive or present participle is used with an auxiliary verb, the position of the pronoun is optional, both rules applying.
Quiero verla. La quiero ver. } I wish to see her. Está hablándome. Me está hablando. } He is speaking to me.
d. In literary style the object pronouns may follow the verb, even in case (a), above.
Hablóme. He spoke to me.
e. When the sentence is negative, no always precedes the object pronoun.
No quiero verla. I do not want to see her. No me ve. He does not see me. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Two Object Pronouns 146. When both a direct and an indirect object pronoun are used, the indirect precedes the direct.
Me lo dió. He gave it to me. Dámelas. Give them to me. Quiero dártelo. I wish to give it to you. ¿Nos lo darán? Will they give it to us?
a. When the direct object is of the first or second person, the prepositional form is more commonly used for the indirect object (see 156 b).
147. The form se used for le, les. When the two object pronouns are of the third person, the form se (old Spanish ge) is used for the indirect object forms le, les.
El se (not le or les) los dió. He gave them to him, to her, to you, to them. Yo se (not le or les) la vendí. I sold it to her, to him, to you, to them. Dénselo (not den le lo or les lo). Give it to him, to her, etc. No se (not le or les) las dí. I did not give them to him, etc. Quiero pedírselo (not pedir le lo or les lo). I wish to ask it of him, etc.
148. The prepositional forms of the personal pronouns are the following:
Singular de mí, of me sin mí, without me de ti, of thee, of you sin ti, without you de él, of him sin él, without him de ella, of her sin ella, without her, etc. de ello, of it de usted, of you de sí (reflexive), of himself, of herself, yourself, itself Plural de nosotros, -as, of us de vosotros, -as, of you de ellos, -as, of them de ustedes, of you de sí (reflexive), of themselves, yourselves Habla de mí. He speaks of me. Lo hago para ti. I do it for you. Vengo con él. I come with him. Ella vive sin ellas. She lives without them. El libro es para usted. The book is for you.
a. With the preposition con, the forms conmigo, contigo, consigo are used, and not con mí, con ti, con sí.
Van conmigo y contigo. They go with me and with you. Llevan las cosas consigo. They take the things with them. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Prepositional Forms as Object Pronouns 154. The prepositional forms of the personal pronouns are also used in Spanish with the preposition a, together with the ordinary object and indirect object pronouns, (a) optionally with usted, (b) for emphasis, or (c) for clearness:
a. Le ve, or Le ve a usted. } He sees you. (Here le ve may also come under (c) if not sufficiently clear.) b. Me ve. He sees me. (Sufficiently clear.) Me ve a mí. He sees me. (Emphatic.) Nos hablaron. They spoke to us. (Sufficiently clear.) Nos hablaron a nosotros. They spoke to us. (Emphatic.)
c. With the third person pronouns the prepositional forms may be used also for reasons (a) and (b), but more frequently they are used for clearness, since the third person pronouns have various meanings: 1. With direct object:
Indefinite Clear Le or lo ví. { I saw him.I saw you.I saw it. Le or lo ví a él.Le or lo ví a usted.Lo ví (a él). Los ví. { I saw them.I saw you. Los ví a ellos.Los ví a ustedes. Las ví. { I saw them.I saw you. Las ví a ellas.Las ví a ustedes.
2. With indirect object:
Indefinite Clear Le hablé. { I spoke to him.I spoke to her.I spoke to you. Le hablé a él.Le hablé a ella.Le hablé a usted. Les habló. { He spoke to them (masc.).He spoke to them (fem.).He spoke to you (masc.).He spoke to you (fem.). Les habló a ellos.Les habló a ellas.Les habló a ustedes.Les habló a ustedes.
When the indirect object pronoun form se (= le, les) is used, the danger of confusion is greater and the redundant construction may become necessary:
Very indefinite Clear Se lo dí. { I gave it to him.I gave it to her.I gave it to them (masc.).I gave it to them (fem.).I gave it to you (masc.).I gave it to you (fem.). Se lo dí a él.Se lo dí a ella.Se lo dí a ellos.Se lo dí a ellas.Se lo dí a ustedes.Se lo dí a ustedes.
155. As the student will observe from the above examples, the prepositional forms have, in the construction in question, a complementary function. They do not take the place of the ordinary forms, me, te, le, etc., which must never be omitted. Veo a él, hablo a ella are, therefore, inadmissible. One must say either lo veo, le hablo or lo veo a él, le hablo a ella.
156. The prepositional forms are used independently in the following cases:
a. When the verb is omitted. No nos habla a nosotros sino a él. He does not speak to us but to him. ¿A quién vió usted? A ella. Whom did you see? Her. b. When the direct object is of the first or second person (see 146 a). Me presentaron a ella. They introduced me to her. Te entregaron a él. They surrendered you to him. ¿Te presentó a él? Did he introduce you to him? Nos presentó a ellos. He introduced us to them.
157. The Redundant Construction with Nouns. On account of the common use of the double pronoun construction treated in 154 and 155, the object pronouns of the third person, lo, la, los, las, le, les, se, may be used even when the object of the verb is a noun. The indirect object pronouns are more commonly used than the direct object forms. For greater emphasis or for contrast, the noun object may precede the pronoun.
a. Yo le hablo a mí padre. I speak to my father. Se lo dí a María. I gave it to Mary. b. A Juan lo ví ayer y a María la ví hoy. I saw John yesterday and I saw Mary to-day. A mi padre dile lo que quieras pero a mi hermana no le digas nada. Tell my father what you wish, but don't say anything to my sister. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Reflexive Verbs 163. A reflexive verb is a verb having as direct or indirect object a reflexive pronoun. The subject and object of a reflexive verb represent the same person or thing.
yo me engaño, I deceive myself, I am mistaken tú te engañas, you are mistaken, etc. él, ella, usted se engaña nosotros, -as, nos engañamos vosotros, -as, os engañáis ellos, ellas, ustedes se engañan
164. Reflexive Pronouns. The reflexive pronouns of the first and second persons are the same in form as the personal object pronouns, me, te, nos, os. For the third person the reflexive pronoun is se, singular and plural, masculine and feminine, with the prepositional form, sí. The prepositional forms of the reflexive pronouns of the first and second persons are also the same as those of the personal object pronouns, mí, ti, etc.
a. The position of the reflexive pronouns is governed by the same rules which govern the position of the object pronouns (140). The reflexive se, however, precedes all other forms.
165. When the prepositional forms of the reflexive pronouns are used, they are usually followed by the intensive mismo (186):
Yo me amo a mí mismo. I love myself. Ellos se aman a sí mismos. They love themselves. Ella se ama a sí misma. She loves herself.
166. Kinds of Reflexive Verbs. The reflexive verb has various uses in Spanish. Any transitive verb may be made reflexive if the meaning permits it.
a. The reflexive verb may be used as a substitute for the passive.
No se ven ahora. They are not seen now. Todavía no se ha comprado la casa. The house has not been bought yet. Esto se hizo el año pasado. This was done last year. ¿A qué hora se abrirán las puertas? At what hour will the doors be opened?
1. When employed impersonally for the English indefinite second or third person, the reflexive verb is always in the third person singular.
Se dice que habrá guerra. They say (it is said) that there will be war. Aquí se habla francés. French is spoken here. No se debe comer tan aprisa. One must not eat so fast. ¿Qué se estudia aqui? What do you study here?
b. Many verbs, which may be used intransitively in English, require an object in Spanish, such as levantarse, 'to rise,' sentarse, 'to sit,' caerse, 'to fall.'
Se levanta. He rises (lit. he raises himself). Se sienta. She sits. Me caigo. I fall.
c. Some verbs are always reflexive in Spanish. Some of the most common are:
acordarse, to remember. dignarse, to deign. arrepentirse, to repent. quejarse, to complain. atreverse, to dare.
d. In some cases the intransitive verb has a different, or slightly different, meaning when used reflexively.
acostar, to put to bed. acostarse, to lie down, go to bed. alegrar, to gladden, cause to rejoice. alegrarse, to rejoice, be glad. escapar, to escape. escaparse, to run away, escape. ir, to go. irse, to go away. llegar, to arrive. llegarse, to approach.
e. Some verbs are used reflexively or not reflexively, with no change of meaning. Among the most common are:
fiar or fiarse, to trust. quedar or quedarse, to remain. reír or reírse, to laugh. tardar or tardarse, to delay.
167. Impersonal Reflexive Construction. The verb of the impersonal reflexive construction (166 a,1) may often be used actively and it then governs a direct or an indirect object.
Se le habló al maestro. They spoke to the teacher. No se le dijo nada. Nothing was said to him, they told him nothing. Se nos pagaba. They paid us, we were paid. Se la admitió. She was admitted.
a. The above construction cannot be used when the object represents a thing. In that case the noun object becomes subject and the ordinary relfexive is used to form the passive, the verb agreeing with the subject:
Los libros se leyeron (= fueron leídos, never se les leyó). The books were read. Ya se compraron los lápices. The pencils have already been bought.
168. When the reflexive verb takes two objects, the reflexive pronoun may have the force of an indirect object pronoun.
Me quito el sombrero. I take off my hat. Se ponen los guantes. They are putting on their gloves. Debes ponerte el sobretodo. You must put on your overcoat.
a. The student will also observe that in this construction the article is used for the possessive adjective.
Reflexive Verbs (Continued) 174. Some reflexive verbs admit the impersonal reflexive construction, and take, therefore, an indirect object.
me figurose me figura } I imagine, it seems to me se me olvidóme olvidé (de) (olvidé) } I forgot
Se les figura que son ricos. They imagine they are rich. Se nos olvidó decirte. We forgot to tell you. Se le olvidó la carta. He forgot the letter.
a. Alegrar, ' to gladden,' admits of the ordinary reflexive, alegrarse (de), ' to be glad, rejoice,' and admits also the double reflexive construction, but with a noun subject only:
Se me alegra el corazón. My heart rejoices. Se le alegraron los ojos. His eyes became glad.
b. Antojarse, ' to take a notion, wish,' is used only in the impersonal reflexive construction:
Se le antojó venir. He took a notion to come. Venga cuando se le antoje. Come when you feel like it.
175. Reciprocal Verbs. In the plural most reflexive verbs may also be reciprocal.
se engañan { they deceive themselves, are mistakenthey deceive one another
The reciprocal meaning is made clear by the use of the forms uno . . . otro (= English 'each other' or 'one another'), with or without the definite article:
Se engañan el uno al otro. They deceive each other. Se amaban las unas a las otras. They loved one another. Se burlaron el uno del otro. They made fun of each other.
176. Apocopated Verb Forms before the Reflexive Pronouns.
a. The final -d of the imperative plural is dropped before the reflexive os:
figuraos (not figurados), imagine. Lavaos las manos, niños. Wash your hands, children. 1. But always: idos, go away.
b. The final -s of the present subjunctive used as positive imperative is dropped before the reflexive nos:
alegrémonos (not alegrémosnos), let us rejoice.
177. Pero, sino, mas. All three of these words may be translated by 'but.'
a. Pero is by far the most common. Mas is generally interchangeable with pero, but is common only in literary speech.
1. When a negative statement is followed by an affirmative in direct contrast, and when there is no change of verb, pero is used if the verb is repeated:
No bebo agua, pero bebo vino. I do not drink water, but I drink wine. No vine ayer, pero vine hoy. I did not come yesterday but I came to-day.
b. Sino has a special use. If in the above construction the verb is not repeated in the affirmative statement, sino is commonly used:
No bebo agua sino vino. I do not drink water, but wine. No vine ayer sino hoy. I did not come yesterday, but to-day.
1. Sino que is sometimes used in either of the above constructions:
No traté de ir, sino que fuí. I did not try to go, but I went. No habla, sino que grita. He doesn't talk, but he screams. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Gustar. Sí and No. Mismo. 184. Gustar. The verb gustar, ' to please,' is almost exclusively used in Spanish with the meaning of the English ' to like,' and it is used with an indirect object, the subject and object being the reverse of the English construction.
Me gusta la comida. I like the dinner. Me gustaba viajar. I liked to travel. Nos gusta la mesa. We like the table. Le gustan las manzanas. He likes apples. ¿Les gustan a ustedes las plumas? Do you like the pens? ¿Te gustó la comedia? Did you like the play?
185. Sí and no with Ellipsis of the Verb Form. Sí and no may be used in Spanish with a pronoun to avoid the repetition of the verb in the second part of a comparison or contrast, when in English the auxiliary verb is often repeated.
Éí estudia mucho, pero yo no. He studies much, but I do not. Yo no voy a comer, pero él sí. I am not going to eat, but he is. Ella fué, pero él no. She went, but he didn't. A mí me gustan las naranjas, pero a él no. I like oranges, but he does not. A usted no le gusta fumar, pero a mí sí. You do not like to smoke, but I do. A ella le habló, pero a mí no. He spoke to her, but not to me.
a. After verbs of ' saying, thinking,' and the like, que is introduced before no or sí, as if the verb were not omitted.
Le pregunté si iría y dijo que sí. I asked him if he would go and he said he would. Dicen que no. They say no (they will not). Creo que sí. I think so. Pienso que no. I think not.
186. Mismo. The intensive mismo, ' self,' which is used with the prepositional reflexive pronouns (165), is also used to intensify any subject pronoun, prepositional personal pronoun, or noun.
Yo mismo fuí. I myself (or even I) went. Usted mismo debe ir. You must go yourself. Ella misma me lo dijo. She told it to me herself. Me lo dió a mí mismo. He gave it to me (myself). Nos la dió a nosotras mismas. He gave it to us (personally). El padre mismo trabaja. The father himself works. Los muchachos mismos me llamaron. The boys themselves called me.
a. When mismo precedes the noun, it may mean ' same,' ' very.'
el mismo libro, the same book. la misma casa, the same house.
187. For emphasis, a question is frequently introduced by que:
¿Que ya no vas a la escuela? Are you not going to school any more? ¿Que no lo viste ayer? Didn't you see him yesterday? ¿Que a su amigo no le gustan las uvas? Doesn't your friend like grapes? ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Radical-Changing Verbs 194. In certain verbs the vowels e and o of the syllable preceding the infinitive ending undergo certain regular changes. These verbs fall into three classes, which are sometimes called the first, second and third classes of irregular or radical-changing verbs. For the rules governing all the changes in question, see 461-466.Learn the first class of the radical-changing verbs, 461.Verbs of this class are all of the first and second conjugations.
195. The following radical-changing verbs belong to the first class:
acordarse, to remember. calentar, to warm. acostarse, to go to bed, lie. cerrar, to close. almorzar, to breakfast. comenzar, to begin. contar, to count. despertar, to awake, awaken. costar, to cost. negar, to deny. mostrar, to show. pensar (en), to think. probar, to prove, try. sembrar, to sow, plant. soltar, to loosen, let go. sentarse, to sit down. volar, to fly. entender, to understand. cocer, to cook. perder, to lose. volver,1 to turn, return. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Radical-Changing Verbs (Continued) 201. Learn the radical-changing verbs of the second class, 465. The following radical-changing verbs belong to this class:
divertirse, to be amused. preferir, to prefer. dormir, to sleep. referir, to relate. mentir, to lie (tell a falsehood). sentir, to feel, be sorry. morir,1 to die.
Learn the radical-changing verbs of the third class, 466. The following belong to this class:
corregir, to correct. repetir, to repeat. elegir, to elect, choose. seguir, to follow, continue. medir, to measure. servir, to serve, make use of. pedir, to ask, beg. vestir, to dress. reñir, to scold, quarrel. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Inceptive Verbs. Adverbs 207. Inceptive verbs, often called the fourth class of the irregular verbs, are a few verbs ending in -cer and -cir preceded by a vowel. These verbs, although otherwise regular, have a k-sound (written c) inserted before endings beginning with o or a. Here belong: conocer, ' to know,' and crecer, ' to grow.' Learn their conjugation in 468.
208. Conocer and saber. Conocer and saber may both be translated by the English, ' to know.' Conocer means ' to perceive,' ' to be acquainted with,' ' to become acquainted with,' while saber means ' to know' a thing or branch of learning by acquired knowledge or understanding.
Conozco a ese hombre bien y sé que es honrado. I know that man well and I know he is honest. El niño sabe ya leer en inglés. The child knows how to read English already. ¿No conoce usted ese país? Do you not know that country? No sabe lo que dice. He does not know what he says. No conozco bien el camino, pero sé que pasa por allá. I do not know the road well, but I know it passes through there.
209. Formation of Adverbs. Adverbs may be formed in Spanish by adding -mente to the feminine form of practically any adjective.
rápido rápidamente, rapidly holgazán holgazanamente, lazily traidor traidoramente, treacherously bonito bonitamente, prettily feliz felizmente, happily fácil fácilmente, easily
If the adjective has a written accent the adverb retains it.
a. Adverbial phrases are very common in Spanish, and often become necessary if -mente with the adjective makes a compound disagreeable to the Spanish ear.
prudentemente = de una manera prudente, con prudencia, prudently.
b. Adjectives are frequently used in Spanish with adverbial force.
Vivieron felices. They lived happily.
210. Position of Adverbs. Before the adjective and after the verb is the ordinary position of adverbs.
Habla bien. She speaks well. Es horriblemente feo. He is horribly ugly.
a. When the verb has an object, the ordinary position of the adverb is also immediately after the verb, but for greater emphasis it may come after the object.
Habla bien el español.Habla el español bien. } He speaks Spanish well. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Possessive Adjectives 216. The possessive adjectives are:
Singular 1. mi, mis; mío, míos, mía, mías, my 2. tu, tus; tuyo, tuyos, tuya, tuyas, thy, your 3. su, sus; suyo, suyos, suya, suyas, his, her, your, its Plural 1. nuestro, -a, nuestros, -as, our 2. vuestro, -a, vuestros, -as, your 3. su, sus; suyo, suyos, suya, suyas, their, your
217. Use of Possessive Adjectives. Possessive adjectives agree in gender and number with the noun modified (and not with the possessor as in English). Mi, tu, su, plural mis, tus, sus, are both masculine and feminine. The other forms end in -o in the masculine and -a in the feminine.
mi libro, mis libros, my book, my books. su pluma, sus plumas, your pen, your pens. la pluma mía, el libro mío, my pen, my book. las casas mías, los guantes míos, my houses, my gloves.
The ordinary forms in the singular, and also in the third person plural, are mi, mis, tu, tus, su, sus, and they always precede the noun modified, while mío, mía, tuyo, tuya, suyo, etc., are the emphatic forms and always follow the noun:
mis buenos amigoslos buenos amigos míos } my good friends. su hermosa casala hermosa casa suya } his, her, your, their beautiful house. mi querido amigomi querida amigaquerido amigo míoquerida amiga mía } my dear friend, dear friend.
218. Use of the Definite Article for the Possessive Adjective.The definite article is frequently used for the possessive adjective when referring to parts of the body or to articles of clothing, or when the possessor is the subject of the verb, especially with reflexive verbs.
Le cortó el cabello. He cut his hair (i.e., the boy's hair). Se cortó el cabello. He cut his (own) hair. Tengo un libro en la mano. I have a book in my hand. Abrió los ojos. He opened his eyes. Se quitó el sombrero. He took off his hat.
219. Possessive Pronouns. The possessive pronouns are formed by adding the corresponding forms of the definite article to the emphatic forms of the possessive adjectives.
el mío, la mía, los míos, las mías, mine. el tuyo, la tuya, los tuyos, las tuyas, thine, yours. el suyo, la suya, los suyos, las suyas, his, hers, yours, theirs. el nuestro, etc., ours. el vuestro, etc., yours, thine. Yo tengo mi libro y V. tiene el suyo. I have my book and you have yours. Él tiene mi pluma y la suya. He has my pen and his (or hers, yours, theirs). ¿Qué libros tienen VV.? Tenemos los nuestros. What books have you? We have ours.
a. To indicate possession with ser, the article of the above forms is omitted:
Ese libro es mío. That book is mine (i.e., it belongs to me). La casa es mía. The house is mine.
When the object in question is to be distinguished from others the article is used:
Esa casa es la mía. That house is mine (is the one that belongs to me).
220. Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns. The third person possessive adjectives and pronouns may have various meanings.
a. Adjectives. In the case of su, sus, it may often become necessary to use the preposition de and the proper form of the personal pronoun after the thing or person possessed, with the optional use of the definite article for su, sus.
su padre { his fatherher fatheryour fathertheir (m.) fathertheir (f.) father = su or el padre { de élde ellade usted, ustedesde ellosde ellas
b. Pronouns. In the case of suyo, suyos, suya, suyas, it may often become necessary to use the corresponding form of the definite article with de and the proper personal pronoun.
el suyo (the book)la suya (the chair) { hishersyours (sing.)yours (pl.)theirs (m.)theirs (f.) = el or la { de élde ellade ustedde ustedesde ellosde ellas ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns 226. The demonstrative adjectives are:
Singular Plural Masc. esteFem. esta } this (near the speaker) estos, theseestas, these Masc. eseFem. esa } that (near the person addressed) esos, thoseesas, those Masc. aquelFem. aquella } that (remote both from the speaker and person addressed) aquellos, thoseaquellas, those
Demonstrative adjectives agree in gender and number with the noun modified, and they regularly precede the noun.
Este libro que tengo. This book which I have. Ese libro que tiene V. That book which you have. Aquel libro que compró su hermano. That book which your brother bought.
227. Demonstrative Pronouns. The demonstrative pronouns are the same in form as the demonstrative adjectives, but they always have the accent mark: éste, ése, aquél, ésa, aquélla, etc.
Esta mesa es mía, aquélla es tuya. This table is mine, that one is yours. Deseo dos libros; dame ése y aquél. I want two books; give me that one (near you) and that one (yonder).
a. As correlatives, aquél means ' the former,' éste, ' the latter.'
b. Ésta, ésa also mean ' this city,' ' that city':
Todo va bien en ésta. All goes well in this city. ¿Es bueno el clima en ésa? Is the climate good in that (your) city?
c. The demonstrative pronouns have also the neuter forms esto, eso, aquello, which refer to general ideas or phrases (see ello, 139 e). These forms have no accent mark.
Eso es bueno, pero esto no. That is good, but this is not. Eso no quita que vaya. That does not prevent my going.
228. Use of the Article for the Pronoun. Before a relative clause, or before a phrase introduced by the preposition de, the definite article is used for the demonstrative or personal pronoun.
La que fué al mercado es María. The one who went to market is Mary. Las que usted vió son mis hijas. The ones that you saw are my daughters. La de la cara larga es mi prima. The one with the long face is my cousin. Los de Madrid ya llegaron. Those from Madrid have already arrived. Lo que yo deseo es comer. What I wish is to eat. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Relative Pronouns 236. The two most common relative pronouns in Spanish are:
que, who, which, that. quien, who.
a. Que is invariable, and either as subject or object of a verb refers to persons or things.
el hombre que vino, the man who came. los hombres que vimos, the men whom we saw. la casa en que vivo, the house in which I live. los libros de que hablo, the books of which I speak.
b. Quien (plural quienes) agrees in number with its antecedent, and refers only to persons.
el hombre a quien ví, the man whom I saw. las niñas de quienes hablo, the girls of whom I speak.
1. When que refers to persons it cannot follow a preposition.
la casa en que vivo, the house in which I live. la niña que víla niña a quien ví } the child whom I saw.
2. Relative pronouns are never omitted in Spanish.
la sillas que compré, the chairs I bought.
3. The preposition always precedes the relative in Spanish.
el señor de quien le hablé, the gentleman I spoke to you about. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Interrogative Adjectives and Pronouns 245. The interrogative adjectives and pronouns are given below. They are subject to the same rules of agreement as the relatives. Observe that they all have the accent mark.
¿quién? ¿quiénes? who? ¿cuál? ¿cuáles? which? ¿qué? what? ¿cúyo? ¿cúya? ¿cúyos? ¿cúyas? whose? ¿cuánto, -a? ¿cuántos, -as? how much? how many? ¿Quién vino?¿Quiénes vinieron? } Who came? ¿Cuáles de los libros desea V.? Which (ones) of the books do you wish? ¿Cuál libro? What book? ¿Cuál? Which one? ¿Qué hombre es ése? What man is that? ¿Qué casa vendió? What house did you sell? ¿Cuál es la casa de usted? Which (one) is your house? ¿Cuánto dinero necesita? How much money do you need? ¿Cuántas personas hay aquí? How many people are there here? ¿Cúya casa es ésta? Whose house is this? ¿De quién es esta casa? Whose house is this? ¿De qué sirve ése hombre? Of what use is that man?
246. Qué tal asks the quality or condition of a person or thing:
¿Qué tal está su padre? How is your father? ¿Qué tal lo trataron? How did they treat you? ¿Qué tal? How goes it? What about it? What did I tell you?
247. As an extension of the interrogative use, qué and cuánto are also used in exclamations.
a. Qué means ' what!' or ' how!'
iQué bellas ciudades! What beautiful cities! iQué lindos ojos! What pretty eyes! iQué bien me siento! How well I feel! iCon qué gracia mueve la cabeza! With what grace she moves her head!
1. Más, ' more,' or tan, ' so,' may precede a qualifying adjective for greater emphasis:
iQué niña tan linda! What a pretty child! iQué hombre más tonto! What a fool of a man!
b. Cuánto means ' how!' ' how much!' ' how many!'
iCuánto me alegro de verle! How glad I am to see you! iCuántos pobres habrán perecido! How many poor people must have perished!
1. Before adverbs and before adjectives (used alone), cuánto becomes cuán:
iCuán fácilmente se puede aprender! How easily it can be learned! iCuán tonto eres! What a fool you are!
248. Acabar de, and less commonly venir de, are used idiomatically with the meaning ' to have just,' etc. In the present tense the construction refers to past time.
Acabo de llegar. I have just arrived. Acababa de hablar. He had just spoken. Vengo de verlo. I have just seen him.
249. Ya no ver la(s) hora(s) is used idiomatically with the meaning ' to be very anxious,' with the hope of immediate fulfillment of one's wishes.
Ya no ve la(s) hora(s) de ver a su hija. She is very anxious to see her daughter. Ya no veía la(s) hora(s) de salir. He was very anxious to leave.
a. The above construction should be distinguished carefully from tener ganas (88 a) which expresses inclination, desire, or willingness.
El no tiene ganas de ir a la ciudad, pero yo ya no veo las horas. He has no desire to go to the city, but I am very anxious to.
250. Ir, ' to go,' with an indirect object, is used idiomatically with the meaning ' to fare,' ' get along,' etc.
¿Cómo le va? How are you? ¿Cómo le fué con el maestro? How did you get along with the teacher? ¿Cómo te ha ido, hijo? How have you fared, child? Nos fué muy mal. We fared badly. No me fué tan bien. I did not get along so well. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Numbers. Numerical Expressions 256. Cardinal Numbers.
1 uno, -a 27 veinte y siete 2 dos 28 veinte y ocho 3 tres 29 veinte y nueve 4 cuatro 30 treinta 5 cinco 40 cuarenta 6 seis 50 cincuenta 7 siete 60 sesenta 8 ocho 70 setenta 9 nueve 80 ochenta 10 diez 90 noventa 11 once 100 ciento (cien) 12 doce 101 ciento (y) uno 13 trece 110 ciento diez 14 catorce 120 ciento veinte 15 quince 200 doscientos, -as 16 diez y seis 1 300 trescientos, -as 17 diez y siete 400 cuatrocientos, -as 18 diez y ocho 500 quinientos, -as 19 diez y nueve 600 seiscientos, -as 20 veinte 700 setecientos, -as 21 veinte y uno 2 800 ochocientos, -as 22 veinte y dos 900 novecientos, -as 23 veinte y tres 1000 mil 24 veinte y cuatro 2000 dos mil 25 veinte y cinco 1,000,000 un millón 26 veinte y seis 2,000,000 dos millones ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Verbs with Orthographic Changes 270. Many Spanish verbs undergo various kinds of orthographic changes. Some of these are very simple and merely involve a change in orthography to keep the same sound. All these verbs are treated in 455-457. Learn the orthographic changes in the verbs pagar, sacar, multiplicar, 457.
271. Review of Verbs. Study the conjugations of the verbs caber, ' to be contained,' saber, ' to know,' valer, ' to be worth,' in the indicative tenses, 473, 486, 491. Review the irregular futures and conditionals, 470 d.
272. Spanish Money. The most common of the smaller Spanish coins are:
un duro = cinco pesetas = about $ 1.00. una peseta = cien céntimos = about $ .18. (For general purposes we may consider the peseta as being worth 20 cents.) una perra gorda = diez céntimos = 2 cents. una perra chica = cinco céntimos = 1 cent. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
The Seasons, Months, Days of the Week, etc. 278.
a. The seasons are:
la primavera, the spring el otoño, the autumn el verano, estío, the summer el invierno, the winter
b. The months 1 are:
enero, January julio, July febrero, February agosto, August marzo, March septiembre,2 September abril, April octubre,2 October mayo, May noviembre, November junio, June diciembre, December
c. The days of the week 1 are:
el domingo, Sunday el jueves, Thursday el lunes, Monday el viernes, Friday el martes, Tuesday el sábado, Saturday el miércoles, Wednesday
The names of the seasons and of the days of the week are generally preceded by the definite article, 35 a, 4.
d. Other expressions of time are:
ayer, yesterday. antier, day before yesterday. hoy, to-day. mañana, to-morrow. pasado mañana, day after to-morrow. semana, week. la semana que viene, next week. año, year. el año que viene, next year. ahora un año, hace un año, a year ago. en quince días, in a fortnight. ocho días, a week. a principios de abril, towards the beginning of April. a mediados (días understood) de mayo, towards the middle of May. a últimos de agosto, towards the end of August. Viene los lunes. He comes (on) Mondays. Se va los sábados. He leaves (on) Saturdays. ¿A cuántos (del mes) estamos? What day of the month is it? Estamos a quince de junio. It is the 15th of June. hora, hour. minuto, minute. segundo, second.
1 The names of the months and of the days of the week are usually not capitalized. 2 Septiembre, octubre are usually pronounced setiembre, otubre.
279. The method of expressing the time of day is illustrated by the following examples:
¿Qué hora es? What time is it? Es la una (hora understood). It is one o'clock. Son las dos (horas understood). It is two o'clock. Son las dos y diez. It is ten minutes past two. Son las seis y cuarto. It is quarter past six. Son las ocho y media. It is half past eight. Son las tres menos veinte. It is twenty minutes of three. Son las doce del día.Es a mediodía. } It is noon. Son las doce de la noche.Es a media noche. } It is midnight. a las tres (horas understood), at three o'clock. a las ocho de la mañana, at eight o'clock in the morning. Faltan diez para la una. It is ten minutes of one. Pasan veinte de las dos. It is twenty minutes past two. ¿A qué hora salió? At what hour did he leave? ----------------------------------------------------------------------
The Subjunctive Mood. The Imperative 285. The subjunctive is more common in Spanish than in English. It is used to express desire, certain kinds of commands, and to express what may be rather than what is a fact.
Learn the forms of the present subjunctive of the regular verbs, 444-453, of the radical-changing verbs, 461-467, of the irregular verbs decir, 477; estar, 478; hacer, 480; ir, 481; venir, 492; ser, 488; salir, 487.
286. Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. In independent clauses the present subjunctive is used:
a. As a substitute for the imperative (see 288, below).b. In the first and third persons with a hortatory or optative idea.
Estudiemos nuestra lección. Let us study our lesson. No nos rindamos. Let us not yield. Que se ponga la mesa. Let the table be set. (Que) vengan (ellos) pronto. Let them come at once.
1. Que is more commonly used when a vague desire is expressed in the third person.
Que me maten si lo hago. Let them kill me if I do it.
287. The Imperative. Learn the forms of the imperative of regular verbs, 447 d, 452, the irregular imperatives, 477, 480, 482, 484, 487, 488, 489, 491, 492. The imperative in Spanish is found only in the second person, the subject being, therefore, tú or vosotros, and is used only in affirmative commands.
Carlos, toma (tú) este libro. Charles, take this book. Niños, tomad (vosotros) estos libros. Children, take these books. Carlos, ven (tú) presto. Charles, come soon. Muchachos, venid presto. Boys, come soon.
288. Subjunctive as Substitute for the Imperative. The present subjunctive is used for the imperative:
a. With the pronoun usted, which takes the third person:
Venga acá, don José. Come here, Joseph. No venga todavía. Do not come yet. Siéntense, señores. Sit down, gentlemen. No compren (ustedes) esa casa. Do not buy that house.
b. With tú or vosotros in negative commands (since the imperative is used only affirmatively):
No hables (tú) de esa manera. Do not speak in that way. No habléis (vosotros) de mí. Do not speak of me. No me digas (tú) eso. Do not tell me that. No nos digáis (vosotros) eso. Do not tell us that.
289. Review the rules for the position of pronouns, 140. With the (positive) imperative or the positive subjunctive used imperatively or with a hortatory idea, the pronoun or pronouns follow the verb and are attached to it.
Dámela 1 (tú). Give it to me. Dádnosla (vosotros). Give it to us. Cómpremelos (usted). Buy them for me. Levantémonos (nosotros). Let us rise. Digámosle lo que queremos. Let us tell him what we want.
1 Observe that the accent mark may be necessary to keep the original stress of the verb form.
With the negative subjunctive of the above constructions, the pronouns precede the verb and are not joined to it.
No me lo des (tú). Do not give it to me. No se lo compréis (vosotros) a él. Do not buy it from him. No nos lavemos ahora. Let us not wash now. No se te figure a ti tal cosa. Do not imagine such a thing.
290. Use of usted. (See also 43.) When not otherwise stated the student should always use usted for ' you,' which demands the subjunctive as an imperative, both negatively and affirmatively. For the sake of politeness usted is usually not omitted.
Déjeme usted entrar, señor Montijo. Let me (or please let me) come in, Mr. Montijo.
a. There are other ways of translating the English ' please':
Hágame (usted) el favor de entrar. Please come in. Háganme (ustedes) el favor de venir. Please come. Sírvase (usted) abrir la puerta. Please open the door. Sírvanse ustedes cerrar la ventana. Please close the window. Tenga (usted) la bondad de hablar más despacio. Please speak more slowly. ¿Me hace (hará) usted el favor de decirme dónde hay una zapatería? Will you kindly tell me where there is a shoe store? Démelo usted, si me hace el favor. Give it to me, please. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
The Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses 296. In dependent clauses the subjunctive is much more common in Spanish than in English. In most cases where the subjunctive is required in Spanish, the English uses the indicative or an infinitive phrase. The study of the Spanish subjunctive in dependent clauses is, therefore, of special importance. The Spanish subjunctive may be used in three classes of dependent clauses, (1) substantive or noun clauses, (2) adjective clauses, or (3) adverbial clauses.
297. Subjunctive in Noun Clauses. A dependent noun clause which serves as the logical object or subject of a verb expressing, (1) command, (2) desire, (3) emotion, (4) doubt or denial, (5) necessity or possibility, (6) approval or preference, or any other verbs expressing such or similar ideas or their opposites, is expressed by the subjunctive introduced by que, whenever the subject of the dependent clause is different from that of the principal clause:
1. Me manda que venga. He orders me to come. Me dijo que viniera. He told me to come. 2. Quiero que V. vaya. I want you to go. Quería que V. fuese. I wanted you to go. Desean que les escribamos. They want us to write to them. 3. Siento que V. haya hecho eso. I am sorry you have done that. Espero que venga. I hope he will come. Esperaba que le hablásemos. He expected us to speak to him. 4. Dudo que lo haga. I doubt that he will do it. Niego que me hayan dicho eso. I deny their having told me that. Dudaba que fuese así. He doubted that it was thus. 5. Es posible que yo vaya mañana. It is possible that I may go to-morrow. No es probable que venga. It is not probable that he will come. 6. No apruebo que digan esas cosas. I do not approve their saying such things. Prefiero que callen. I prefer that you keep silent.
298. If the subject of the dependent clause is the same as that of the principal clause, the infinitive (as in English) is used, and not the subjunctive.
Yo quiero abrir la puerta. I wish to open the door. Not: Yo quiero que yo abra puerta.
299. Some verbs, however, allow the infinitive construction as well as the subjunctive when there is a change of subject. Of these the most common are: aconsejar, ' to advise,' permitir, ' to allow,' prohibir, ' to prohibit,' mandar, ' to order.'
No le permitió que saliera.No le permitió salir. } He did not allow him to leave. Te prohibo que fumes.Te prohibo fumar. } I prohibit you to smoke. Le mandó que viniera.Le mandó venir. } He ordered him to come.
300. With impersonal verbs, either the subjunctive or the infinitive may be used.
Me es preciso ir a verlo.Es preciso que yo vaya a verlo. } I must go to see him. Me fué preciso ir.Fué preciso que yo fuera. } It was necessary for me to go. No les es fácil hallarlo.No es fácil que to hallen. } It is not easy for them to find it. Le es imposible ir ahora.Es imposible que él vaya ahora. } It is impossible for him to go now.
a. In some cases when the impersonal expression is composed of verb and noun, only the subjunctive is allowed:
Es lástima que V. no lo sepa. It is a pity that you do not know it. Es tiempo de que venga. It is time for him to come. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Dependent Noun Clauses. Indirect Discourse. Sequence of Tenses 307. After verbs of believing, knowing, thinking and affirming, the dependent noun clause is expressed by the indicative when stating facts or implying certainty.
Creo que este hombre dice la verdad. I believe this man tells the truth. Ella creía que V. vendría hoy. She believed you would come to-day. Pienso que ya es tiempo. I think it is already time. Confesó que había venido. He confessed that he had come. Ella declara que el hombre es inocente. She declares that the man is innocent. Yo sé que ya vinieron. I know they have come. Dijo que nos había visto. He said he had seen us.
308. If, however, in the above cases, uncertainty or doubt is expressed, especially when the principal verb is negative, the subjunctive may be more properly used.
Yo no creo que lo haga. I do not believe he does it. No creo que sea tiempo de salir. I do not believe it is time to leave. No digo que lo haya (or he) visto. I do not say that I have seen him. Ella no declaró que yo fuese inocente. She did not declare that I was innocent.
a. In questions the subjunctive or indicative may be used, the indicative implying a certain degree of certainty, and the subjunctive uncertainty, on the part of the speaker.
¿Cree V. que ella sea (or es) feliz? Do you believe she is happy? ¿Cree V. que él venga (or vendrá)? Do you believe he will come? ¿Pensaron ellos que nosotros viniéramos (or veníamos or vendríamos)? Did they think that we would come? ¿Que piensas que soy tonto? Do you think I am a fool? (The certainty of not being a fool is implied.)
309. Indirect Discourse. To express indirect discourse the verb of the dependent clause is ordinarily in the indicative.
Dice que { vienevendrá } mañana. He says he is coming to-morrow. Dijo que { veníavendría } mañana. He said he would come to-morrow. Ha dicho que no lo { hacehará } He has said that he will not do it. Nos confesó que había venido. He confessed to us that he had come. Declaró que lo había visto. She declared that she had seen him. Me informó que su padre había estado aquí. He informed me that his father had been here.
310. Saber used negatively requires the verb of the subordinate clause in the subjunctive after que, and in the indicative after si (= ' if, whether').
No sé que haya venido. I do not know that he has come. No sé que venga. I do not know that he will come. No sé si vendrá. I do not know that (or whether) he will come. No sabían si su padre iría a verlas. They did not know whether their father would go to see them. No sabemos si { hahabrá } venido. We do not know that he has come.
311. Sequence of Tenses. The general rules for the sequence of tenses are the following:
a. The present tense, the future tense, or the imperative in a principal clause, requires the present subjunctive in the dependent clause, if the verb of the latter relates to a time coexistent with, or subsequent to, the time of the principal verb.
Le digo que venga. I tell him to come. Le diré que venga. I shall tell him to come. Dígale (usted) que venga. Tell him to come.
1. If, however, in the above cases, the verb of the dependent clause relates to a time prior to that of the principal verb, the past (either form)1 or present perfect subjunctive is required.
No creo que V. estuviese (or haya estado) aquí. I do not believe that you were here. Es probable que el viniera (or haya venido) ayer. It is probable that he came yesterday.
b. The past tense (past descriptive or past absolute indicative) in a principal clause requires the past subjunctive (either form) in the dependent clause, if the verb of the latter relates to a time coexistent with, or subsequent to, the time of the principal verb.
Le decía (or dije) que se fuera (or fuese). I was telling him (or told him) to go. Me rogó que le ayudara (or ayudase). He begged me to help him.
1. If, however, in the above case, the verb of the dependent clause relates to a time prior to that of the principal verb, the past perfect subjunctive is required.
Sentía mucho que yo hubiese (or hubiera) estado aquí y que no hubiese ido a verle. He was very sorry that I had been here and had not gone to see him. No creían que lo hubiese (or hubiera) hecho. They did not believe that he had done it. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sequence of Tenses (Continued) 318. Review 311. The present perfect tense in the principal clause requires a present or past subjunctive in the dependent clause, if the verb of the latter relates to a time coexistent with, or subsequent to, that of the principal verb.
Le he dicho que { venga.viniese (or viniera). } I have told him to come. Nos han rogado que { vayamos.fuésemos (or fuéramos). } They have begged us to go.
a. If the verb of the dependent clause relates to time prior to that of the principal verb, the past perfect subjunctive may be required.
Yo he querido que usted se lo { hubierahubiese } dicho. I wished you had told it to him.
1. In like manner, the conditional in the principal clause requires a past subjunctive or a past perfect subjunctive in the dependent clauses.
No me gustaría que se fuese (or fuera). I should not like to have you go. Me alegraría mucho de que nos ayudase (or ayudara). I should be very glad to have him help us. Sería mejor que lo hubiesen (or hubieran) hecho antes. It would have been better for them to have done it before.
319. The past subjunctive form quisiera (quisieras, etc.) is used for the conditional to express a desire, whether followed by the subjunctive or not.
Quisiera que usted hablara (hablase). I wish you would speak. Quisiéramos irnos. We should like to go. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
The Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses 326. Adjective clauses, i.e., dependent clauses used after relative pronouns, have the verb in the subjunctive in the following cases:
a. When the antecedent clause expresses doubt, uncertainty, negation, condition.
Aquí no hay quien hable español. There is no one here who speaks Spanish. No me dijo nada que me pudiese convencer. He did not tell me anything which could convince me. No conozco a nadie que lo pueda hacer. I do not know any one who can do it.
b. When indefiniteness or uncertainty is expressed in the relative clause itself.
Busco un criado que sepa trabajar. I am looking for a servant who can work. Desean un dependiente que trabaje diez horas al día. They desire a clerk who will work ten hours a day. No hagas lo que te diga. Don't do what he tells you. Iré a donde V. me diga. I shall go wherever you tell me.
c. After a superlative or a word of similar character (but only in the present perfect tense).
Es el mejor hombre que jamás haya (or he) visto. He is the best man I have ever seen. Es el maestro más inteligente que jamás haya (or ha) venido a esta escuela. He is the most intelligent teacher that has ever come to this school.
327. When the relative clause expresses certainty or definiteness with respect to the antecedent the indicative is used.
Tenía un hijo que le mantenía. He had a son who supported him. Busco al criado que ví ayer. I am looking for the servant I saw yesterday.
The Subjunctive in Adverb Clauses 334. The subjunctive may be used in Spanish in various adverb clauses.The most important conjunctions and conjunctive expressions which may introduce subjunctives of this kind are the following:
a. Time or extent (temporal clauses).
antes (de) que, before hasta que, until después de que, after luego que, as soon as cuando, when siempre que, whenever Levántese V. antes de que vengan. Rise before they come. Iremos a verla después de que V. haya venido. We shall go to see her after you have come. Dígale que cuando yo diga es cuando debe venir. Tell him that when I say so is when he must come. Se lo diré cuando me lo pregunte. I shall tell it to him when he asks me about it. Estése aquí hasta que llegue el tren. Stay here until the train arrives. Luego que llegue, se viene. When it arrives, you will come. Siempre que vea a mis amigos déles mis memorias. Whenever you see my friends give them my regards.
b. Purpose or result.
a fin de quede manera quede modo quepara queque } in order (that), so that, so as Se lo dijimos { para quea fin de que } viniese. We told it to him that he might come. Bajó la celosía { de manerade modo que } no entrase la luz. He lowered the blind so that the light could not enter. Voy a cerrar la puerta para que no entre nadie. I am going to close the door so that no one will come in. Iré de modo que no me vean. I shall go so that they may not see me. Déselo todo que no vuelva a pedir más. Give it all to him so that he will not ask any more.
1. Negatively:
no sea que, lest sin que, without Déle el dinero ahora, no sea que se le olvide. Give him the money now, lest you forget it. Fuí sin que me llamaran. I went without being called. Voy sin que me llamen. I am going without being called.
c. Condition.
dado que, in case that en caso (de) que, in case that, if a menos quea no ser que } unless, lest que, whether sea que, whether, if Dado que se haya ido no hay razón para aflijirse. In case he has gone there is no reason for being distressed. No voy { a no ser quea menos que } usted (no) vaya conmigo. I will not go unless you go with me. Que me pregunte o no, yo no le diré nada. Whether he asks or not, I will not tell him anything. Sea que ellos se decidan a partir o no, yo partiré la semana que viene. Whether they decide to leave or not, I will leave next week.
d. Concession.
aunque, although, though, even if a pesar de que, in spite of aun cuando, even if por . . . que, however Aunque hayan venido, no iré a verlos. Although they have come, I shall not go to see them. Aunque se enojen, no me importa. Even if they become angry, I do not care. A pesar de que Vds. se lo digan, no lo va a creer. In spite of your telling it to him, he will not believe it. Aun cuando no tengan nada, no deben perder la esperanza. Even when you have nothing, you must not lose hope. Por bueno que sea no lo quiero. However good it may be, I do not want it.
335. In many of the above cases the indicative is used when stating facts, especially in past time.
Me fuí después de que vino. I went after he came. Me lo dijo luego que llegó. He told it to me when he arrived. Nos traía dulces siempre que venía. He brought us candy whenever he came. Cerró la puerta de manera que nadie entró. He closed the door so that no one came in. Aunque llovía salió. Although it was raining, he left. Cuando nos dieron el dinero, nos fuimos. When they gave us the money, we left. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Pronouns and Adverbs. Negation 357. Alguno. Alguno is used as a pronoun or an adjective. As a pronoun it means ' some,' or ' some one,' or ' a few.' As an adjective it means ' some ' or ' a few.'
Lo daré a alguno. I shall give it to some one. He leído algunas de sus obras. I have read some of his works. Tengo aquí algunos libros. I have here some books.
a. In negative sentences alguno as an adjective has a negative value when it follows the noun.
No tengo cosa alguna. I haven't a thing.
358. Alguien. Alguien, meaning ' some one,' is used only as a pronoun and is applied to some indefinite person.
Alguien ha venido. Some one has come. Se lo daré a alguien. I shall give it to some one.
359. Algo. Algo is used as a pronoun and also as an adverb, but never as an adjective.
Veo algo. I see something. Es algo difícil. It is somewhat difficult.
360. Ninguno. Ninguno is a negative pronoun or adjective, corresponding to the affirmative alguno.
Ninguno quiere entrar. No one wishes to enter. No veo a ningún amigo. I don't see any friend. Ninguna mujer haría eso. No woman would do that.
a. For the apocopation of alguno and ninguno, see 70.
361. Nadie and nada. Nadie, ' no one,' ' nobody,' and nada, ' nothing,' are negative pronouns, corresponding to alguien and algo.
No me ha visto nadie.Nadie me ha visto. } No one has seen me. No he visto nada.Nada he visto. } I have seen nothing, or I haven't seen anything.
a. Nada may also be used as an adverb.
No es nada difícil. It is not at all difficult.
362. Nunca and jamás. Nunca and jamás, ' never,' are negative adverbs. Jamás is the more emphatic.
No le he visto nunca.Nunca le he visto. } I have never seen him. No lo haré jamás.Jamás lo haré. } I shall never do it.
a. In the use of all the above negative pronouns or adjectives, the student will observe that they serve to strengthen the preceding negative no and follow the verb, or are used alone preceding the verb.
b. Observe also:
mejor que nunca, better than ever. mejor que nadie, better than any one.
363. Ni. Ni is a negative conjunction, equivalent to the English ' nor,' ' and not.'
No lo ví ni quiero verlo. I did not see him nor do I (or and I do not) care to see him.
a. Ni is followed by the negatives nadie, nada, etc., and not alguno, algo.
No tengo dinero ni me lo dará nadie. I have no money and no one will give me any. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Comparison 370. All degrees of comparison may be expressed in Spanish by adverbs. The comparative of superiority is expressed by using más, ' more,' immediately before the adjective or adverb, and the comparative of inferiority by using menos, ' less,' in the same manner.
bueno, good más bueno, better menos bueno, less good temprano, early más temprano, earlier menos temprano, less early aprisa, quickly más aprisa, more quickly menos aprisa, less quickly
371. The following four adjectives have, in addition to the regular, an irregular comparative:
bueno, good mejor, better malo, bad peor, worse grande, large mayor, larger, older pequeño, small menor, smaller, younger
372. The following four adverbs have also an irregular comparative:
mucho, much más, more poco, little menos, less bien, well mejor, better mal, badly peor, worse
373. ' Than ' is ordinarily expressed by que.
Tengo más dinero que V. I have more money than you. Él anda más aprisa que ella. He walks faster than she.
a. Before numerals or numerical expressions, ' than ' is expressed by de in affirmative sentences and by either que or de in negative sentences.
Me dieron más de veinte pesos. They gave me more than twenty dollars. No tenía más que (or de) dos libros. He didn't have more than two books.
374. When each member of the comparison has a different verb, or the second member of the comparison repeats the verb of the first, de is generally used for ' than ' in preference to que. Furthermore, if an adjective is the point of comparison, de is followed by the relative lo que (' that which '), and if a noun is the point of comparison, by the relatives el que, la que, los que, las que (' the one which,' ' those which ').
Es más bueno de lo que pensaban. He is better than (that which) they thought. Trajo menos de lo que prometió. He brought less than he promised. Tengo más dinero del que te presté. I have more money than (that which) I loaned you. Me compró menos libros de los que creí que me compraría. He bought me less books than (those which) I thought he would buy me.
375. Comparison of Equality. tan . . . . . como, as . . . . . as.tanto (-a, -os, -as) . . . . . como, as much, as many . . . . . as.
Es tan bueno como lo esperaba. It is as good as I expected. No es tan fácil como V. cree. It is not as easy as you believe. Tiene tanto dinero como puede desear. He has as much money as he can wish. No creía que tenía tantas casas como V. I did not believe he had as many houses as you.
376. Cuanto . . . . . (tanto), followed by any comparatives, translate the English ' the more . . . . . the less,' ' the more . . . . . the more,' ' the less . . . . . the less,' etc.
Cuanto más gana, (tanto) más (or menos) gasta. The more he earns, the more (or less) he spends. Cuanto más le pidan, (tanto) más (or menos) les dará. The more you ask of him, the more (or less) he will give you.
377. The Superlative Degree. The superlative degree of adjectives or adverbs is formed by putting the definite article or a possessive pronoun before the comparative. When el (la, lo) is used as the article, both the comparative and superlative have the same form.
Positive Comparative Superlative bueno, good mejor, better el mejor, best rico, rich más rico, richer el más rico, richest aprisa, quickly más aprisa, more quickly lo más aprisa, most quickly Ése es el más rico de todos. That man is the richest of all. Ésa es mi mejor pluma. That is my best pen. Ése es el más rico de los dos. That man is the richer of the two.
a. After a superlative de is used for the English ' in.'
París es la más bella ciudad (or la ciudad más bella) del mundo. Paris is the most beautiful city in the world.
378. The Absolute Superlative. The absolute superlative is expressed in two ways.
a. By the use of adverbs, emphatic prefixes, or both.
muy bueno, muy bien, very good, very well relindo, retelindo, very pretty regrande, retegrande, very big muy rebonito, very very pretty
b. By the addition of the suffix -ísimo, added directly to adjectives or adverbs ending in consonants, and to those ending in vowels after dropping the vowel.
hábil, skillful habilísimo, very skillful querido, dear queridísimo, very dear diligente, diligent diligentísimo, very diligent pronto, soon prontísimo, very soon
1. Orthographic changes may become necessary to keep the original consonantal sound before adding -ísimo.
rico riquísimo largo larguísimo
2. When adjectives have ie or ue in the accented syllable, the shift of the accent may revert these to i, o.
bueno buenísimo or bonísimo nuevo nuevísimo or novísimo viejo viejísimo
3. Adverbs with distinctive adverbial endings, such as -os, -a, transfer these endings to the superlative termination.
lejos, far lejísimos, very far cerca, near cerquísima, very near
4. Adverbs in -mente have the superlative suffix -ísima added to the original adjective form.
ricamente, richly riquísimamente, very richly ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases 384. Many of the more common of the Spanish prepositions and prepositional phrases have been learned in previous lessons. For the sake of convenience they are repeated here. The simple prepositions have so many special meanings that some must be studied in detail.
385. The more common of the simple prepositions, with their general and ordinary meanings, are the following:
a, to, at, from, of, in, into, on. excepto, except, but. ante, before, in the presence of. hacia, towards. bajo, under, below. hasta, as far as, to, until, up to. con, with. para, by, for, to, in order to. contra, against. por, for, by, to, through, on account of. de, of, from, by, about, concerning, on, at, with, on account of, to. según, according to, as. desde, from, since. sin, without. durante, during. sobre, on, upon, about. en, in, on, into, upon, at, of. tras, after. entre, among, between.
386. The more common prepositional phrases are the following:
a. Phrases composed of an adjective or adverb with the preposition a:
conforme a, according to. junto a, near, by, close to. contrario a, contrary to. respeto a, } in regard to, with respect to. frente a, opposite to, facing. tocante a,
b. Phrases composed of an adverb with the preposition de:
acerca de, about, regarding. dentro de, within, inside of. además de, besides. después de, after (in time). alrededor de, around. detrás de, after, behind (in place). antes de, before (in time). encima de, over, on, above. cerca de, near. enfrente de, in front of. debajo de, under. fuera de, outside of, except. delante de, before, in front of (in place). más allá de, beyond.
c. Phrases composed of two prepositions with an intervening word:
a causa de, on account of. a pesar de, in spite of. a fin de, in order to. en cuanto a, as to, with respect to. a fuerza de, by dint of. en lugar de, } instead of, in place of. al lado de, by the side of. en vez de,
387. The Preposition a. The principal uses of the preposition a, ' to, at, from, of, in, into, on,' are:
a. To express time. a las diez, at ten o'clock. a mediodía, at noon. a tiempo, in time. a fines de mayo, by or towards the end of May. ¿A cuántos estamos hoy? What day of the month is it to-day? Salieron a la madrugada. They left very early (at dawn).
b. To express position, destination, direction.
Está a la puerta. He is at the door. Voy a la escuela. I am going to school.
c. To express manner or means.
Viene a pie. He comes on foot. Lo echaron fuera a patadas. They kicked him out.
d. To express price or rate.
Se venden a diez centavos cada uno. They are sold at ten cents apiece. ¿A cómo se venden? What price are they? al cinco por ciento, at five per cent.
e. With verbs meaning ' to take from,' ' buy from,' etc.
Quítale el libro a Juan. Take the book away from John. Le compré el libro a mi tío. I bought the book from my uncle.
f. For the preposition a used as the sign of the object, see 44.
g. For the preposition a used for the English ' on ' before the present participle, see 125 b.
h. Motion is expressed by a. (For rest expressed by en, see below; see also (b), above.)
Voy a casa. I am going home. ¿A dónde va? Where are you going? Voy a España el año que viene. I am going to Spain next year.
i. For the preposition a used as the sign of the infinitive, see 406.
388. The Preposition en. The principal uses of the preposition en, ' in, on, into, upon, at, of,' are the following:
a. To express rest in or on a place or motion in or into a place.
Estamos en París. We are in Paris. El libro está en la biblioteca. The book is in the library. Póngalo en la caja. Put it in the box. La comida está en la mesa. The dinner is on the table. Entra ahora en la iglesia. He is now going into the church.
b. To express time and hoy en ocho días, a week from to-day. en el día de hoy, to-day. No me meto en tonterías. I do not care for foolishness. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
The Prepositions Para and Por 394. The prepositions para and por are a source of much confusion to the English-speaking student. This is largely due to the fact that both are frequently translated by the English preposition ' for.' The general distinction is that para indicates purpose, destination, direction, while por indicates source, cause, means.
395. The Preposition para. The principal uses of the preposition para, ' for, to, in order to,' are the following:
a. To express the use or purpose of an object.
Es una cuchara para sopa. It is a soup spoon. El lápiz es para V. The pencil is for you. Le dí diez pesos para gastos de viaje. I gave him ten dollars for traveling expenses.
b. To express purpose before the infinitive (often an emphatic form of a).
Comemos para vivir. We eat to live. Voy a su casa para ver a su padre.Voy a su casa a ver a su padre. } I am going to his house to see his father. Trabaja para ganar dinero. He works to earn money.
c. To express time.
Dejaremos eso para otro día. We will leave that for another day. Para cuando venga ya yo estaré aquí. By the time he comes, I shall be here.
d. To express direction, destination.
Caminan para el norte. They are going north. Voy para Madrid. I am going to Madrid. Van para su casa. They are going home.
396. The Preposition por. The principal uses of the preposition por, ' for, by, to, through, on account of,' are the following:
a. To express cause, manner, means.
Ya me muero por verle. I am dying to see him. Esto fué hecho por él. This was done by him. Lo hago por caridad. I do it on account of charity. Vienen por ferrocarril. They are coming by railroad. Subió por sus propias fuerzas. He ascended through his own strength.
b. To express time when or place through which.
Viene por la tarde. He comes in the afternoon. ¿Ha estado V. aquí por mucho tiempo? Have you been here (for) a long time? Metió la mano por la ventana. He put his hand through the window.
c. To express ' on account of,' ' for the sake of ' (but not ' for the benefit of,' which is expressed by para, 395 a).
Lo hago por usted. I do it for you (on your behalf).
d. To express price, value, exchange.
Vendió el caballo por cien pesos. He sold the horse for one hundred dollars. Se venden por docena. They are sold by the dozen. Me dió su pluma por la mía. He gave me his pen for mine.
e. With the agent of the passive if the action is physical. (If the action is mental, de is also used, 399 e.)
La leña fué traída por los muchachos. The wood was brought by the boys.
397. Estar used with para and por.Estar para indicates purpose with certainty as to the fulfillment of the action, while estar por indicates inclination.
Estoy para irme. I am about to go away. Estoy por irme. I am about to (I have a mind to) go.
398. The distinction between para and por is frequently not brought out in the English sentence.
Lo hago para él. I do it for him (for his benefit). Lo hago por él. I do it for him (on his account). Voy a verlo para ser amigo suyo. I am going to see him (in order) to be his friend. Voy a verlo por ser su amigo. I am going to see him because I am his friend.
399. The Preposition de. The various uses of the preposition de, ' of, from, by, about, on, at,' etc., are too many to be treated here in detail. In many respects it is the simplest and easiest of the Spanish prepositions to understand. The following uses, however, need special treatment.
a. To express origin, source.
Viene de París. He is coming from Paris. Es de Chicago. He is from Chicago.
b. To express cause, state.
Lo hace de tonto. He does it because he is a fool. No habla de orgullo. He doesn't speak through pride. Gritó de gusto. He screamed from joy.
c. To express time.
de día; de noche; by day; by night, at night. Es de día. It is day. Era un joven de doce años. He was a youth of twelve years.
d. To translate the English ' with,' ' in,' ' of,' after an adjective or past participle.
El pozo está lleno de piedras. The well is filled with stones. Estaba vestida de negro. She was dressed in black. La casa estaba llena de humo. The house was full of smoke. El asno iba cargado de sal. The donkey was loaded with salt.
e. To indicate the agent of a passive verb if the action is mental. See 396 e.
Es querida de (por) todos. She is loved by all. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Verbs in Prepositional Constructions 405. Verbs which require a Preposition as the Sign of the Infinitive. The English ' to ' before the infinitive is either not translated at all in Spanish or translated by various prepositions.
a. After nouns and adjectives de is very commonly used as the sign of the infinitive. Most of the following constructions have already been treated.
tener ganas de + infinitive, tener la intención de, and similar constructions of tener + noun, 88 a. Es bueno de (or para) comer. It is good to eat. Es hora de comer. It is time to eat. Observe however tener que + infinitive (121). Tengo que decírselo. I have to tell it to him.
b. After verbs, however, the matter is much more complicated. In the vocabulary the preposition which any verb may require before the infinitive is given with each verb. Incomplete lists are given below.
406. The following verbs require the preposition a before the infinitive:
a. Most verbs of motion and all verbs meaning ' to begin':
acudir, to hasten. Acudió a decírmelo. bajar, to descend, come down. Bajó a lavarse. correr, to run. Corre a coger la bola. entrar, to enter. Ya entraron a comer. ir, to go. Voy a verle mañana. pasar, to pass. Pasó a darles las nuevas. salir, to go out. Salió a encontraries. subir, to ascend, go up. Sube a vestirse. venir, to come. Vengo a verles. comenzar,empezar,principiar, } to begin. Comienza a hablar.Empieza a llover.
With the above verbs of motion and with a few of those given below,para or por may be used instead of a, de, or en, if a strong purpose or motive is implied. See 395, 398.
b. The following very common verbs:
acercarse, to approach. enviar, to send. alcanzar, to reach, succeed. inducir, to induce. aplicarse, to apply one's self. invitar, to invite. aprender, to learn. llegar, to come, succeed. apresurarse, to hasten. negarse, to refuse. aspirar, to aspire. obligar, to oblige. atreverse, to dare. oponerse, to oppose. ayudar, to help. pararse, to stop. convidar, to invite. prepararse, to prepare. detenerse, to stop. sentarse, to sit. disponerse, to prepare. tornar, to return. enseñar, to teach. volver, to---again. Aprende a hablar. No me atrevo a ir. Ayúdame a subir. Le enseño a leer. Me obligó a hacerlo.
407. The following very common verbs require the preposition de before the infinitive:
abstenerse, to abstain. guardarse, to avoid. acabar, to finish. hablar, to speak. acordarse, to remember. olvidarse, to forget. alegrarse, to be glad. pesar, to be sorry. arrepentirse, to repent. reírse, to laugh. cesar, to cease. sentirse, to feel. dejar, to cease, fail. ser, to be. descansar, to rest. temblar, to tremble. dispensar, to excuse. tratar, to try, attempt.
Ya acabó de hablar. No se acuerda de decirlo. No deje de ir. Tratan de pasar.
408. The following very common verbs require the preposition en before the infinitive:
acordar, to agree. insistir, to insist. complacerse, to take pleasure. molestarse, to take the trouble. consistir, to consist. ocuparse, to buy one's self. empeñarse, to insist. pensar,1 to think (of). equivocarse, to be mistaken. tardar, to delay. fijarse, to pay attention. vacilar, to hesitate. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Verbs in Prepositional Constructions (Continued). Augmentatives and Diminutives 413. Some verbs may introduce an infinitive with any one of two or even three different prepositions. The meaning may or may not vary. The majority of these constructions must be learned from observation.
Echó a correr. He began to run. No lo echó de ver. He did not notice it. ¿Qué piensa V. de eso? What is your opinion of it? Piensa en ella. He thinks of her. Quedó en (or a) venir. He agreed to come.
414. Frequently the preposition used before the infinitive is not determined by the preceding verb but by the construction which follows, and it translates not the English ' to ' but ' by,' ' with,' etc.
Se contenta con venir. She is satisfied by (or with) coming. Se muere por verme. He is very anxious to see me. Se muere de verle así. He is dying to see him thus. Está para entrar. He is about to enter (in point of time). Está por entrar. He is about to enter (inclined to).
415. Augmentatives and Diminutives. The Spanish language is very rich in suffixes which qualify the meanings of words, especially nouns, adjectives, and past participles. A few can be attached generally to any noun or adjective, but most of them cannot, so that great care and observation are the only safe guides in their use.
a. The most common augmentative endings are:-ón, -ote, -etón, -erón, -achón, -acho, -ucho, -ejón, -arrón, -azo.
b. The most common diminutive endings are:-ito, -cito, -ecito, -illo, -cillo, -ecillo, -ico, -cico, -ecico, -uelo, -zuelo, -ezuelo.
416. The general rules for the formation of augmentatives and diminutives are:
a. The suffix is attached to the full form of the word, if it ends in a consonant or an accented vowel:
el ángel, the angel. el angelito, the little angel. la flor, the flower. la florecita, the little flower. el animal, the animal. el animalón, the large beast. papá, papa. papaíto, dear father.
b. The vowel is dropped before the suffix is attached, if the word ends in an unaccented vowel:
la mano, the hand. la manecita, the little hand. el hombre, the man. el hombrón, the big man. la niña, the girl. la niñita, the little girl.
417. Meaning of Augmentative and Diminutive Suffixes.
a. AUGMENTATIVES.1. The suffixes -ón, -erón, -etón, -azo are, as a rule, mere augmentatives:
el hombre, the man. el hombrón,el hombrazo, } the big man. la casa, the house. el caserón, the big house. la moza, the lass. la mocetona, the big girl.
2. -acho, -ucho, -ote, -achón, -arrón, -ejón are augmentative, depreciative, pejorative:
el pueblo, the people. el populacho, the mob, rabble. el cuarto, the room. el cuartucho, the ugly old room. la nube, the cloud. el nubarrón, the big cloud. feo, ugly. feote, very ugly. rico, rich. ricacho,ricachón, } very rich.
b. DIMINUTIVES.1. The suffixes -ito, -cito, -ecito, -ico, -cico, -ecico express diminutiveness, affection, pity:
el hijo, the son. el hijito, the (dear) little son. (Sera)fina, Fina. Finita, little Fina. pobre, poor, wretched. pobrecito, pitiable, poor little fellow, etc. la flor, the flower. la florecita, the little flower. las manos, the hands. las manecitas, the dear (or lovely) little hands. pequeño, small. pequeñito,pequeñico, } very small. ahora, now. ahorita, very soon. lejos, far. lejitos, rather far.
2. -illo, -cillo, -ecillo, -uelo, -zuelo, -ezuelo express diminutiveness, lowness, scorn, ridicule.
el rey, the king. el reyezuelo, the worthless king. el capitán, the captain. el capitancillo, the little captain. la mujer, the woman. la mujercilla, the little woman. colorado, red. coloradillo, light red. Juan, John. Juanillo, little John. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Interjections and Exclamations 422.
a. Interjections.
¡ay! ¡oh! ¡ah! oh! ah! alas! ouch! ¡ha! ha! eh! ¡hé! ¡huy! eh! oh! ouch! ¡ea! come! hurry! ¡hola! ¡ola! well! hello! ah! ¡bah! pshaw! ¡puf! ¡uf! oh! ugh! ¡pum! bang!
b. Exclamations and Exclamatory Phrases.
¡canastos!¡caracoles!¡caramba!¡cáspita!¡córcholis! } goodness! goodness gracious! the deuce! jingo! great Scot! etc. ¡cielos! heavens! ¡demonio!¡diablo! } the deuce!
¡dios!¡dios mío!¡por dios!¡válgame dios! } dear me! goodness! for heaven's sake! God help me! ¡Jesús!¡Jesús, María y José!¡Ave María purísima! } for heaven's sake! oh, heavens! God help me (us)!
The above exclamations are very common in Spanish and are not considered profane. In certain solemn and grave circumstances some of these exclamations could be translated into English literally.
¡anda! pshaw! go away! come! please! ¡bravo! bravo! ¡calla! ¡cállese! keep still! wait! ¡cuidado! be careful! look out! ¡dale! the same old story! ¡oye! ¡oiga!¡mira! ¡mire! } say! listen! look here! see here! ¡toma! well! here! ¡vamos! come! well! let's go! ¡vaya! well! good! come! indeed!
¡ay de mí! poor me! alas for me! ¡desgraciado de él! woe to him! ¡bien haya de él! good for him! ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Various Idioms 427. Greetings, Leavetakings, and Other Social Formalities.
Formal { ¿Cómo está V.?¿Cómo se encuentra V.?¿Cómo lo pasa el señor?Señor ¿cómo está V.?
} How are you?How do you do?How goes it? Familiar { ¿Cómo va, amigo?¿Te hallas bien?¡Hola! ¿qué tal?¿Qué hay?¿Cómo estamos de salud? buenos días,muy buenos días,tenga V. buenos días,buenos los tenga V., } good morning, good morning to you. buenas tardes, good afternoon. buenas noches,tengan VV.buenas noches,pase V. buenas noches, } good night, good night to you. adiós, good-by. hasta luego,hasta la vista, } I'll see you again. beso a V. la mano,a la orden de V.,su servidor, } your servant, sir (or madam); at your orders. ¡vaya V. con dios!¡que V. lo pase bien!¡que le vaya bien! } good-by, God be with you, good luck to you. así, así, tal cual,sin novedad, } so so, as usual. gracias,mil gracias,muchas gracias,muchísimas gracias, } thank you (very much). las recibo (formal),no hay de que (familiar), } you are welcome. con mucho gusto,con mucho placer,con mil amores (affectionate), } with great pleasure. haga V. el favor de decirme,tenga V. la bondad de decirme,¿me hace V. el favor de decirme?¿tendrá la bondad de decirme? } please tell me, will you please tell me? favor de decirme (familiar), please tell me. favor,por favor,si me hace el favor, } please, if you please. Traiga la silla si nos hace el favor. Bring the chair, please. Hágame el favor de traer la silla. Please bring the chair. ¿Me hará V. el favor de esperar aquí unos cinco minutos? Will you kindly wait here for five minutes? pase V.,entren VV.,tengan VV. la bondad de entrar,entre V. en esta su casa, } come in, please come in. siéntese V.,tenga V. la bondad de sentarse,sírvase sentarse, } sit down, have a chair, please sit down. Permítame presentarle (que le presente) a mi madre. Allow me to introduce you to my mother. Señora, celebro infinito la ocasión de conocerla. I am very glad, indeed, to make your acquaintance. perdón,perdone V.,le pido a V. perdón,V. dispense, } I beg your pardon, pardon me. ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Letter Writing 431.
a. Forms of Address.
Señor Don Ramón Menéndez Pidal, Madrid. Muy señor mío y amigo. My dear Sir and Friend. Muy señor mío. My dear Sir. Muy señores nuestros. Dear Sirs. Muy señora mía. Dear Madam. Mi querido hijo. My dear Son. Amigo mío. Dear Friend. Señora Doña Luisa Rodríguez, Barcelona. Muy señora nuestra: Señores B. Sánchez y Cía., Habana. Señores: Casa Editorial Bailly-Bailliére, Madrid. Señores míos:
b. Complimentary Beginning.
Tengo el honor de acusar a V. el recibo de su muy apreciable carta del 23 del pasado y me apresuro a darle las gracias por su amabilidad.¡Con cuánto gusto recibí su amable comunicación!Muchísimas gracias, amigo mío, por su muy apreciable carta, que acabo de recibir.Acabo de recibir tu carta, hijo mío, y me apresuro a decirte que todos nos sentimos orgullosos de tu buen éxito.Tengo el gusto de acusar el recibo de la suya, fechada el 22 del corriente.En contestación a su favorecida del 21 del pasado, sentimos decirle que nos es imposible obtener los libros que nos pide.
c. Complimentary Conclusion.
Con esta ocasión me permito ofrecerle mis servicios y le ruego que me considere siempre su afmo. s. s., q. b. s. m.Quedo de V. su S. S. y amigo.Me repito de V. S. S. S. y amigo, q. b. s. m.Salude de mi parte a su señora y niños y considéreme siempre su S. S. y amigo.Esperando una respuesta favorable, quedo de VV. su S. S., q. b. s. m.Entre tanto, le ruego, señora, que disponga de este su amigo y servidor, q. b. s. p.Le saluda con el cariño de siempre su amigo y S. S., q. b. s. m.
d. Abbreviations. In letters, abbreviations are commonly used only in commercial correspondence.
a cta. a cuenta on account. or afmo. afectísimo affectionate. ant. anterior former. apble. apreciable welcome; favor (letter). att.o or atto. atento respectful. c. cuenta account. c/. cuenta de account of. c./c.te cuenta corriente current account. cía. compañía Company. cte. corriente instant, present. D. or Dn. Don Mr. Da. Doña Mrs. dho. dicho said. duplicado duplicate. fha. fecha date. fol. folio folio, page. Hno. Hermano Brother. kg. kilogramo kilogram. lbs. libras pounds. n/. or ntro. nuestro our. núm. número number. pc/o. por ciento % p/cta. por cuenta on account. próximo pasado ultimo. q. b. s. m. que besa sus manos q. b. s. p. que besa sus pies s/. sobre on, upon. Sr. Señor Sir. Sra. Señora Madam. Srta. Señorita Miss.

Free Spanish Lessen:
well-bien__sick-enfermo__doctor-doctoremergency-emergencia__OK-okeyfever-fiebre__sleep- sueño__walk-paseofall-caída__feel- sensación__hurt- dañopain- dolor__live- vivo__ die-morirdown- abajo__why- por quénow- ahora__brush- cepillo__hair- pelocomb- peine__eye- ojo__nose- narizface- cara__ear- oído__arm- brazohand- mano__finger- dedo__leg- piernafoot- pie__toe- dedo del pie__skin- pielbutt- extremo__walk- paseo__go- irrun- dirigido__stop- parar__slow- lentosick- enfermo__surgery- cirugía
kitchen- cocina__sink- fregaderoeat- comer__drink- bebida__ cup- tazaglass- crystal__plate- platospoon- cuchara__ fork- tenedorknife- cuchillo__table- mesachair- silla__icebox- neverastove- estufa__cook- cocinerorice- arroz__beans- alubiassteak- filete__cut- cortebread- pan__butter- mantequillamilk- leche__egg- huevobake- hornear__fry- fritochicken- pollo__beef- carne de vacapork- carne de cerdo__bacon- tocinocook- cocinero
house- casa__door- puerta__key- llavewindow- ventana__floor- sueloclean- limpio__dirty- suciodirt- suciedad__sweep- barridomop- fregona__paint- pintura
bedroom- dormitoriobed- cama__sleep- sueñocovers- tapas__blanket- mantapillow- almohada__rest- restoradio-radio__clock- relojpicture- cuadro__tired- cansado
rug- manta__carpet- alfombrafloor- suelo__wall- paredtelevision- television__couch- canapéchair- silla
bathroom- baño__sink- fregaderotoothbrush- cepillo de dientestoothpaste- pasta de dientesbrush- cepillo__comb- peineshower- ducha__bathe- bañowash- lavar__washcloth- manoplatowel- toalla__soap- jabónwater- agua__bathtub- bañerafan- abanico__commode- cómodaflush- rubor
woman- mujer__man- hombregirl- muchacha__boy- muchacho
good- bueno__bad- mal__ugly- feobeautiful- hermoso
bank- banco__money- dinerospend- gastar__save- ahorrar
car- coche__start- principio__go-irslow- lento__stop- parar__back- atrásmove- movimiento__roll- rollogas-gas__oil- petróleo__choke- estárterbreak- ruptura__drive- paseo
yard- yarda__tree- árbol__leaves- hojaslimb- miembro__wood- Maderagrass- hierba__bicycle- bicicletaswimming pool- piscine__swim- nadadafence- cerca__rake- rastrilloshovel- pala__dig- cavar__hole- agujerogarden- jardín__grow- crecervegetables- verdures__onion- cebollagarlic- ajo__salad- ensalada
Please- por favor__thank you- graciasI yoYou ustedWe nosotrosThey ellos
Want querer I want quieroYou want usted quiereWe want queremosThey want ellos quieren
Must debeI must deboYou must usted debeWe must debemosThey must ellos deben
Eat comerI eat comoYou eat usted comeWe eat comemosThey eat ellos comen
Go irMust go debe irI must go debo irYou must go usted debe irWe must go debemos irThey must go ellos deben ir
Sleep sueñoI sleep duermoYou sleep usted duermeWe sleep dormimosThey sleep ellos duermen
Drink bebidaI drink beboYou drink usted bebeWe drink bebemosThey drink ellos beben
Walk paseoI walk andoYou walk usted andaWe walk andamosThey walk ellos andan
Can puedeI can puedoYou can usted puedeWe can podemosThey can ellos pueden
Can’t no puedeI can’t no puedoYou can’t usted no puedeWe can’t no podemosThey can’t ellos no pueden
Will va aI will voy aYou will usted va aWe will vamos aThey will ellos van a
See verI see veoYou see usted veWe see vemosThey see ellos ven
Give darI give doyYou give usted daWe give damosThey give ellos dan
Take tomarI take tomoYou take usted tomaWe take tomamosThey take ellos toman
Live vivoI live vivoYou live usted viveWe live vivimosThey live ellos viven
Who are you?¿quiénes son usted?
Can I help you?¿puedo ayudarle?
How are you?¿Cómo está usted?
Are you ok?¿están usted okey?
Are you thirsty?¿tienen usted sed?
Are you hungry?¿tienen usted hambre?
Are you hurt?¿hacen daño a usted?
Are you lost?¿es perdido usted?
Are you with me?¿son usted conmigo?
Are you going?¿va usted?
Are you coming?¿viene usted?
Are you staying?¿se queda usted?
Are you in a hurry?¿tienen prisa usted?
Are you there?¿están usted en un allí?
How arecomo son
my name is _mi nombre es _
your name?¿su nombre?
What is your name?¿cómo se llama usted?
Where do you live?¿dónde vive usted?
Where do you work?¿dónde trabaja usted?HappyFeliz
I don’t sé.
I think so.pienso tan.
I doHago
I wantQuiero
You wantusted quiere
we wantqueremos
they wantellos quieren
well-bien__sick-enfermo__doctor-doctoremergency-emergencia__OK-okeyfever-fiebre__sleep- sueño__walk-paseofall-caída__feel- sensación__hurt- dañopain- dolor__live- vivo__ die-morirdown- abajo__why- por quénow- ahora__brush- cepillo__hair- pelocomb- peine__eye- ojo__nose- narizface- cara__ear- oído__arm- brazohand- mano__finger- dedo__leg- piernafoot- pie__toe- dedo del pie__skin- pielbutt- extremo__walk- paseo__go- irrun- dirigido__stop- parar__slow- lentosick- enfermo__surgery- cirugía
kitchen- cocina__sink- fregaderoeat- comer__drink- bebida__ cup- tazaglass- crystal__plate- platospoon- cuchara__ fork- tenedorknife- cuchillo__table- mesachair- silla__icebox- neverastove- estufa__cook- cocinerorice- arroz__beans- alubiassteak- filete__cut- cortebread- pan__butter- mantequillamilk- leche__egg- huevobake- hornear__fry- fritochicken- pollo__beef- carne de vacapork- carne de cerdo__bacon- tocinocook- cocinero
house- casa__door- puerta__key- llavewindow- ventana__floor- sueloclean- limpio__dirty- suciodirt- suciedad__sweep- barridomop- fregona__paint- pintura
bedroom- dormitoriobed- cama__sleep- sueñocovers- tapas__blanket- mantapillow- almohada__rest- restoradio-radio__clock- relojpicture- cuadro__tired- cansado
rug- manta__carpet- alfombrafloor- suelo__wall- paredtelevision- television__couch- canapéchair- silla
bathroom- baño__sink- fregaderotoothbrush- cepillo de dientestoothpaste- pasta de dientesbrush- cepillo__comb- peineshower- ducha__bathe- bañowash- lavar__washcloth- manoplatowel- toalla__soap- jabónwater- agua__bathtub- bañerafan- abanico__commode- cómodaflush- rubor
woman- mujer__man- hombregirl- muchacha__boy- muchacho
good- bueno__bad- mal__ugly- feobeautiful- hermoso
bank- banco__money- dinerospend- gastar__save- ahorrar
car- coche__start- principio__go-irslow- lento__stop- parar__back- atrásmove- movimiento__roll- rollogas-gas__oil- petróleo__choke- estárterbreak- ruptura__drive- paseo
yard- yarda__tree- árbol__leaves- hojaslimb- miembro__wood- Maderagrass- hierba__bicycle- bicicletaswimming pool- piscine__swim- nadadafence- cerca__rake- rastrilloshovel- pala__dig- cavar__hole- agujerogarden- jardín__grow- crecervegetables- verdures__onion- cebollagarlic- ajo__salad- ensalada
Please- por favor__thank you- gracias
you usted me yo we nosotros they ellos all todos
them ellos
i know how to read a book.sé leer un libro.
do you like to read books?¿usted tiene gusto de leer los libros?
how are you?¿Cómo está Ud.?
what is your name?¿cómo se llama usted?
my name ismi nombre es
it is hot.está caliente.
it is cold.esto es frío.
are you hungry?¿tienen usted el hambre?
i am hungry.tengo el hambre.
would you like something to drink?¿quisiera Usted algo beber?
i need something to drink.necesito algo para beber.
i would like some gustaría alguna leche.
where do you work?¿dónde trabaja usted?
i am incapacitado(inutilizado).
i have parkinson disease.tengo la enfermedad parkinson.
are you sick?¿usted es enfermo?
hello my friend.hola mi amigo.

a little poco a lot mucho abdomen el abdomen abortion aborto about sobre, más o menos about to do sthg estar a punto de above encima de, arriba abroad (go ~) ir al extranjero (live,go) absent ausente absent-minded distraído absolutely absolutamente abuse abusar de (physically). insultar accelerator el acelerador accent acento accept aceptar, admitir access (have ~) tener acceso a… accident accidente accommodation alojamiento accompany acompañar accomplish conseguir, lograr (goal) according (to) según account la cuenta accountant contable accurate preciso accuse acusar a alguien de algo ache (n/ v) el dolor, me duele acid ácido action acción active activo activity actividad actor/ actress actor/ actriz adaptor adaptador add (v) añadir addicted (to) ser adicto a address la dirección advertisement anuncio adjust ajustar admission admisión admit confesar adolescent adolescente adopt adoptar adult adulto adultery adulterio advance (in) por adelantado advanced avanzado advantage ventaja adventure aventura advice consejo, aviso advise aconsejar, dar consejo. aerial antena affect afectar (med) affection el cariño afford poder permitirse algo (financially) afraid asustado, con miedo afraid (of) tener miedo de after después de , que after (all) después de todo afternoon tarde, de la tarde afterwards después again otra vez, de nuevo against contra, contra de age edad agency agencia, buró agent agente aggressive agresivo ago hace una semana agree estar de acuerdo. aim objetivo air el aire air base base aérea air filter el filtro air force fuerza aérea air mail correo aéreo air-conditioning (AC) el aire acondicionado airline línea aérea airplane el avión airport aeropuerto. aisle el pasillo alarm alarma. alarm clock el despertador album álbum (phot) alcohol alcohol alcoholic alcohólico

algebra el álgebra alibi coartada, excusa alien el extraterrestre, el extranjero alive vivo. estar vivo all todo, todos. all right ¿de acuerdo?¿está bien? está bien allergic to alérgico a allergy alergia. alligator el caimán allow permitir, autorizar. almonds almendras. almost casi, apenas. alone solo, único. aloud en voz alta alphabet alfabeto, abecé. already ya. alright bien, como se debe. also también, además. although aunque always siempre. ambassador embajador ambition ambición ambitious ambicioso ambulance la ambulancia American americano. amount cantidad, suma. amusing divertido analyze analizar ancestors antepasados anchor ancla and y. angel ángel. angle ángulo angry colérico, airado. enfadado animal animal, bestia. ankle el tobillo announce anunciar annoy molestar, irritar annoying pesado answer (n) respuesta, contestación. answer (v) responder, contestar. answering machine contestador automático ant la hormiga antenna la antena antler el cuerno any cualquier. alguno/a anybody cualquiera, alguien. anything cualquier cosa, nada. anyway de todos modos. anywhere dondequiera. apartment apartamento, cuarto. apartment building los apartamentos appear aparecer. appearance apariencia appetite apetito, gana, deseo. appetizer el aperitivo applaud aplaudir apple la manzana application aplicación, pedido. apply aplicar. appointment cita apprentice aprendiz apricot el albaricoque April abril. Arab árabe. Arabic árabe (idioma), árabe. architect el arquitecto Argentina argentina arm (body) el brazo armchair la butaca armrest el descanso brazo, el apoyabrazos arms (weapons) armas army ejército, armada. around alrededor de arrange (room) organizar arrest detener arrival la llegada arrive llegar, venir arrogant arrogante art el arte art gallery galería de arte artichoke la alcachofa as como, tan. as (if) como si as much/many... as tanto(a, os, as)...como tan...como ashamed avergonzado ashtray cenicero ask preguntar, pedir. asparagus los espárragos ass asno, borrico, buro. asset ventaja asshole idiota, estúpido. pendejo asterisk asterisco asteroid el asteroide asthma asma. astronaut (f) la astronauta astronaut (m) el astronauta at en, a. en casa athlete (f) la deportista athlete (m) el deportista athletic supporter el suspensorio ATM cajeros automáticos attach (~ an e-mail) adjuntar attention la atención attitude actitud attorney el abogado attractive guapo august agosto aunt la tía Australia australia author autor, escritor. authorization la autorización autumn otoño available disponible. avenue avenida. avocado aguacate. avoid evitar awesome impresionante awful espantoso ax hacha baby el bebé, el niño, nene babysitter la canguro (sp), babysitter (lat) back (adv) atrás, detrás. back (body) la espalda. backpack la mochila backyard jardín trasero bacon el tocino, el beicon bad mal, malo, gente mala. bad weather mal tiempo badge la insignia badly mal bag la bolsa, saco. baggage el equipaje bake cocer al horno. baker's panadería bakery la panadería balcony balcón bald calvo ball el balón, la pelota balloon globo banana el plátano, la banana band (music) grupo band aid la curita bandage venda bank el banco bank statement extracto bancario banker el banquero bar (place) el bar. bar (stick) barra barber el barbero barefoot descalzo barely apenas bargain (n) ganga, baratillo. bargain (v) negociar, discutir el precio bark (v) ladrar barrel tonel, barril barren yermo (land), árido baseball el béisbol basic básico, primario. basically en principio basket cesta basketball el baloncesto basketball hoop una canasta bat (animal) el murciélago bat (stick) un bate bath (have a ~) bañarse, tomar un baño bathing suit un traje de baño bathroom el cuarto de baño, servicio bathtub la bañera battery la pila, la batería (car) bay la bahía

be ser, estar, existir. beach la playa beak el pico beans (broad) las habas beans (French) los frijoles / las judías verdes beans (kidney) los frijoles, las alubias bear (animal) el oso bear (v) soportar beard barba. beat (v) golpear, dar de golpes. beautiful bello, hermoso. beauty belleza beaver castor because porque, puesto que. become hacerse, volverse. bed la cama bedroom el dormitorio, la recámara, alcoba bedtime hora de acostarse bee la abeja beef la carne de res / vaca beer cerveza beet la remolacha beetle el escarabajo before antes, antes de, delante de (place) beg mendigar. pedir beggar mendigo begin empezar, comenzar. beginner principiante. beginning comienzo. behave comportarse behavior comportamiento, conducta behind detrás de (place) belief creencia believe creer, creer en. believer creyente bell campana, timbre belong to pertenecer a below, under debajo (de) belt el cinturón bench la banca bend doblar beret la boina beside al lado de besides además best el mejor, lo / la mejor bet (gamble) apostar betray traicionar. engañar (wife) better mejor. between entre, en medio. beverages las bebidas bib el babero bible biblia. bicycle, (by ~) bicicleta, (en ~) big grande, gordo. bill cuenta, factura. pico bin (trash ~) cubo ([para la basura) binoculars prismáticos bird el pájaro, ave. birth nacimiento. birthday cumpleaños. birthday card la tarjeta de cumpleaños biscuit galleta bison el bisonte bit (a - of) un poco de bitch zorra (woman) bite (n) mordisco, picada. bite (v) morder, picar (insect) bitter amargo black negro black eye el ojo morado black hole el agujero negro blackberry la zarzamora blackmail (v) chantajear blade cuchilla, lama blame culpar blanket la manta, la cobija, el cobertor bleach lejía bleed sangrar blender licuadora blind ciego blocked (road) cortado blocks los bloques blood sangre. blood group grupo sanguíneo blouse la blusa blue azul, de color azul. boast jactarse boat barco body cuerpo, cuerpo humano. bodyguard guardaespaldas boil hervir (liquids only) boiled eggs huevos cocido Bolivia bolivia bomb (n) bomba bomb (v) bombardear bone hueso. book (n) el libro, tomo. book (v) reservar,hacer una reservación bookcase el estante para libros bookstore la librería boots las botas border borde, frontera. bored aburrido. boring aburrido. borrow pedir prestado. boss jefe, manager. botany la botánica both ambos, ambas. bother molestar bottle la bnotella, frasco, jarro, biberón bowl escudilla box la caja, el cofre. boxing el boxeo boy el chico, niño, muchacho. boyfriend novio. bra sujetador, sostén bracelet la pulsera brackets corchete brain cerebro. brake el freno brand marka brand-new completamente nuevo brave valiente bread el pan bread shop la panadería break romper, fraccionar. breakable frágil breakdown avería breakfast el desayuno breast seno, pecho breath respiración, aliento. breathe respirar. breeze una brisa bricks ladrillos bride novia, desposada. bridegroom novio, prometido. bridge puente. briefcase cartera bring traer. Britain gran bretaña British británico broad ancho broccoli el brócoli brochure folleto broke arruinado (perm),sin blanca broken roto, quebrado, broom la escoba brother el hermano. brother-in-law cuñado brown marrón, pardo, castaño. bruises golpes brush el cepillo bucket el cubo bud el botón buddy amigote budget presupuesto buffet cafetería bug bicho (insect) build construir, edificar. building el edificio, la construcción. bulb (light) la bombilla, el bulbo bull el toro bullet bala bullfighter torero bullshit gilipollez (sp).pendejada (lat) burden carga burn (n) la quemadura burn (v) quemar burp eructar bus el autobús,el bus. bus stop la parada de autobús bush el arbusto business los negocios business man hombre de negocios busy ocupado, activo. but pero, sino. butcher's la carnicería butt trasero butter la mantequilla butterfly la mariposa buttocks las nalgas button botón (shirt or machine) buy comprar. by (heart). de memoria by (via) por, cerca de. by bicycle en bicicleta by boat en barco by bus en autobús by car en coche by motorcycle en motocicleta by plane en avión by subway en metro by taxi en taxi by train en tren bye adiós

cabbage la col cabinet el gabinete cable el cable cactus el cactus café el café, la cantina. cage jaula , prisión. cake pastel, tarta. cake shop la pastelería calculator calculadora calf el becerro, ternero, pantorilla call (n) llamada, --telefónica. call (v) llamar, -- por teléfono. calm (adj) calmo, tranquilo. calm (v) calmar, acallar. camcorder vídeo-cámara camel camello. camera cámara, --fotográfica. camisole el bustillo camping (go ~) ir de campada can (n) la lata, bidón. can (v) poder, poderse. can opener abrelatas Canada canadá cancel cancelar , anular. cancer cáncer (enfermedad), cáncer candle candela, bujía. candy los dulces, caramelo candy store la confitería, la dulcería canned goods los productos enlatados cap la gorra capital capital. mayúsculo. car el carro (lat), el coche. caravan caravana card tarjeta card (playing) el naipe, carta cardinal el cardenal care (n) cuidado, atención. care (v) importar, concernirse. career carrera careful cuidadoso, cauteloso carpenter el carpintero carpet la alfombra, moqueta. carrot la zanahoria. carry llevar, cargar, transportar carry-on (n) el bolso de mano cart carrito carton el cartón cartoon caricatura carve tallar case asunto. caso case (in ~) por si. en caso de cash (n) dinero en efectivo. cash (v) cobrar en efectivo. cashier cajero. casino casino cassette casete. cast (n) el enyesado castle castillo casual-dress ropa informal cat el gato. catch (v) coger, agarrar, atrapar. catch up on recuperar category categoría caterpillar el gusano de seda catholic católico cauliflower la coliflor cause (v) provocar caution prudencia cautious prudente cave cueva ceiling el techo. celebrate celebrar, festejar. celery el apio cell phone un teléfono celular cement pegamento, cemento cemetery cementerio. center centro central heating calefacción central century siglo cereals los cereales certain cierto, seguro certainly naturalmente! ciertamente certificate certificado

Spanish Dictionary C chain la cadena chair la silla, el asiento. chameleon el camaleón champion (f) la campeona champion (m) el campeón championship el campeonato chance la oportunidad, ocasión chance (by ~) por casualidad chandelier el candil change (n) el cambio, modificación. change (n) suelto (small coins), vuelta change (v) cambiar, modificar. channel canal. charge (n) el coste charge (v) cobrar charger (battery~) cargador charming encantador cheap barato, de bajo precio. check (n) cheque. check (traveler ~) el cheque (de viajero) check (v) verificar, revisar. check in (v) registrarse check out (v) dejar el hotel checklist lista de verificación cheek la mejilla. cheerful alegre cheers! salud! cheese el queso. chemistry la química cherries cerezas chess ajedrez. chest el pecho. chest of drawers el gavetero, la cómoda chestnut castaña chewing gum chicle chicken el pollo, gallina. child chico, hijo, niño. childhood infancia, niñez. children los niños, chicos. Chile chile chimney la chimenea china china, la loza china cabinet el chinero, el aparador chipmunk la ardillita chips las patatas fritas chisel el formón chocolate chocolate. choose escoger, elegir, selección choose! elige! chops las chuletas Christian cristiano. Christianity cristiandad. Christmas navidad. church iglesia, casa de dios. cigarettes cigarrillos cinema cine, cinema. circus circo citizenship ciudadanía, nacionalidad city ciudad. clamp (screw) el tornillo clams almejas classroom aula, clase. clean (adj) limpio. clean (v) limpiar, lavar. cleanliness la limpieza cleansing cream crema limpiadora clear (adj) claro, brillante. clearly claramente cleats unos zapatos de fútbol clerk dependiente, empleado. clever listo, ágil de mente. click! haz clic! climb subir clock reloj, reloj de pared. close cerrar. close to (near) cerca, junto. cercano closed cerrado closet el armario clothes los vestidos, las ropas, el traje clothes hanger el gancho clothing la ropa clothing store la ropería clouds nubes. cloudy está nublado. hace nubes club club, asociación. clutch el embrague coach autocar coast la costa coat chaqueta, manto, el abrigo cockroach la cucaracha coconut el coco cocoon el capullo coffee café. coffee table la mesita central coffeepot la cafetera coins monedas. coke coca-cola. colander el colador cold (adj) frío. cold (sick) resfriado collar el cuello collect call llamada a cobro revertido college universidad. color color. Columbia colombia comb el peine come venir, llegar. come back regresar, volver. come in (v)! entrar. pase! siga! (lat) come on! vamos! comet el cometa comfortable cómodo company compañía competition la competición complain quejarse. reclamar complaint queja. reclamación complementary complementario complete (adj) completo. complete (v) completar, acabar. compose redactar (carta) computer el computador conceited presumido concert el concierto conditioner el suavizante condom preservativo conductor el conductor conference conferencia confirm confirmar congratulate felicitar. congratulations congratulación, felicitación connect conectar conservative conservador constellation la constelación constipated estreñido consulate consulado contact ponerse en contacto contented contento continent el continente continue continuar, durar. conversation conversación, plática. cook (n) el cocinero. cook (v) cocinar, cocer, cookies galletas cool fresco. órale!!! coping saw la sierra de calar copper cobre. copy (n) copia, replica. copy (v) copiar, duplicar. cord cordón, cuerda. corn el maíz, grano. corner la esquina correct (adj) correcto, exacto, justo. correct (v) corregir, correctly correctamente cost (n) costo, precio, valor. cost (v) costar, valer. costa rica costa rica cotton algodón. couch el diván cough toser, la tos, count contar country el país, campo. couple pareja coupon cupón. court corte, tribunal. cousin (f) la prima cousin (m) el primo cover (n) cubierta. cover (v) cubrir covered cubierto. cow la vaca coward cobarde crab cangrejo crackers la galleta cradle la cuna mecedora crash colisionar crazy loco. cream crema. nata credit crédito. credit card tarjeta de crédito crib la cuna cricket el grillo crime crimen. crocodile el cocodrilo cross (n) cruz. cross (v) cruzar, atravesar crosswalk la vía peatonal crow el cuervo crowded concurrido crude bruto cruel cruel, vicioso. cruise crucero crutch la muleta cry (n) grito. cry (v) llorar, derramar lágrimas. Cuba cuba cucumber el pepino cufflinks las mancuernas culture cultura. cup la taza, el vaso currency moneda circulante. current actual curtain (drape) la cortina curtain rod el cortinero customer cliente customs officer la aduana, costumbres cut (v) (n) cortar. la cortada, cisión. cute lindo, bonito. dance (v) bailar dandruff caspa danger peligro. dangerous peligroso. dark oscuro. darling querida, amada. dash raya database base de datos date fecha, cita. daughter la hija day día, fecha. dead muerto, sin vida. deadline fecha tope dear querido death muerte. decaff descafeinado December diciembre deck la asoleadera declare declarar deep profundo. deer el ciervo, el venado. defendant el acusado defrost descongelar delay retraso delete suprimir. delicious delicioso den el gabinete dentist el dentista deodorant desodorante department store los grandes almacenes, el almacén departure la salida deposit depósito depth profundidad, fondo. desert el desierto desk el escritorio dessert el postre details los detalles detergent detergente develop desarrollar devote oneself to dedicarse diabetic diabético dial (number) marcar el número dialing code prefijo diamond diamante diaper el pañal diarrhea diarrea diary agenda dictionary el diccionario die morir. diesel gasoil diet régimen difference diferencia. different distinto difficult difícil, duro, no fácil. dig cavar, hincar dine cenar, comer. dining room el comedor dinner la cena, la comida. directions indicaciones directly directamente. director director, administrador. dirty sucio, ensuciado. disabled inválido disabled people personas incapacitadas disagree estar en desacuerdo. disappear desaparecer. disco discoteca discount descuento, rebaja. discover descubrir, hallar. discuss discutir. dish el plato, el trasto de cocina dishwasher el lavaplatos disinfectant desinfectante disk disco disposable desechable distance distancia. disturb perturbar, estorbar divide dividir, separar. divided dividido, diviso. divorce (n) divorcio divorce (v) divorciarse divorced divorciado dizzy mareado do hacer. doctor el doctor, el medico. documents documentos dog el perro doll muñeca donkey el burro, asno. door la puerta door handle la manija door lock el seguro dope (v) drogar double doble. double bed cama de matrimonio dove la paloma down, abajo, hacia abajo. download bajar downstairs la planta baja downtown centro de la ciudad drag arrastrar dragonfly la libélula drain el desagüe drainer la vaporera drains alcantarillado draught la corriente draw dibujar

drawing el dibujo dream (n) sueño. dream (v) sonar ambicionar. dress (n) el vestido. dress up (v) vestirse dresser el tocador drink (n) bebida drink (v) beber drinking water el agua potable drive conducir, manejar. driver conductor driveway la entrada de carros driving license carné de conducir drown ahogase drug droga drugstore la droguería drum tambor drunk (adj) borracho drunk (get ~) emborracharse dry (n) seco, árido. dry (v) secar dry-cleaner's la tintorería dryer la secadora duck el pato due to debido a dune la duna during durante dust el polvo dust (v) sacudir dust cloth el paño dustpan el recogedor dusty cobierto de polvo duty obligación duty (be on ~) estar de servicio e. g. p. ej E.U U.E each cada, cada uno. eagle el águila ear la oreja, oído. earlier antes early (adv) temprano, con tiempo earn ganar earnings las ganancias earth tierra, mundo. earthquake terremoto easily (adv) fácilmente. easy fácil, simple. eat comer. eclipse el eclipse economize economizar economy economía Ecuador ecuador edge borde edition edición educate educar educated culto (per) education educación, formación eel la anguila effect efecto effective efectivo effort esfuerzo egg huevo. eggplant la berenjena egoist egoísta Egypt egipto eight ocho. eighteen dieciocho. eighteenth décimo octavo eighth octavo eightieth octogésimo eighty ochenta. either one cualquiera de los dos elastic elástico elbow el codo election elección electric eléctrico. electric razor la maquinilla de afeitar electrician el electricista electricity electricidad. elegant elegante element elemento elementary school escuela primaria elephant el elefante elevator el ascensor eleven once eleventh undécimo eloquent elocuente else lo demás. e-mail correo electrónico embargo embargo embarrass avergonzar embarrassed avergonzado embassy embajada. emergency emergencia emergency exit salida de emergencia emotion emoción empire imperio employee empleado employer patrón empty vacío, vacante. encourage animar encyclopedia enciclopedia end (n) fin, final. end (v) acabar, terminar.. endless interminable enemy enemigo, adversario. energy energía engaged prometido engine el motor engineer el ingeniero England inglaterra English ingles. enjoy disfrutar enough bastante. enquiry desk información enroll matricularse enter entrar. entertain entretener (amuse) entertainments los espectáculos enthusiastic entusiasta entire entero entrance entrada. envelope el sobre enviable envidiable envious envidioso environment entorno, ambiente envy la envidia episode episodio equal igual. equality igualdad equator ecuador equipment equipo erase borrar eraser la goma error error escalator escalera mecánica escape escaparse especially especialmente. espionage espionaje essential imprescindible estimate estimación Europe europa. evaluation evaluación even aun. evening tarde. event acontecimiento every cada, todo. everybody todos, todo el mundo. everyday (de) todos los días everything todo. everywhere en todas partes. evil malo (adj). mal exact exacto exactly exactamente exaggerate exagerar exam examen, prueba. examine examinar example (for ~) por ejemplo exceed exceder. sobrepasar excellent excelente except excepto, salvo exception excepción excess exceso exchange (v) intercambiar. excited (be ~) emocionado excited (get ~) emocionarse exciting emocionante exclude excluir excursion excursión excuse perdonar, perdón! exercise ejercicio. exhausted muy cansado, exhausto exhibition exposición exist existir exit salida. expect esperar expenses gastos expensive caro, valioso. experience experiencia. experiment experimento expert experto expire caducar explain explicar, aclarar. explode explotar exploit explotar explore explorar explosion explosión explosives explosivos export exportar express (adj) rápido express (v) expresar extend prorrogar extension extensión (tel) exterior exterior extinct extinguido (species) extra de más, adicional extract extraer extremely extremadamente extremist extremista eye el ojo eyebrow ceja eyelashes pestañas

fabric tela face la cara factory fábrica faded desteñido fail fracasar, fallar failure falla, fracaso, fallo. faint desmayarse fainted desmayado fair (adj) rubio fair (n) el parque de atracciones faithful fiel fake falso fall (v) caer(s), caer al suelo. false, falso. familiar familiar family familia. famous famoso, célebre. fan (n) (machine) ventilador eléctrico fan (n) (person) aficionado fantasy fantasía far (adv) (adj) lejos. lejano, distante far from lejos de fare precio del billete farm granja farmer granjero fart tirarse un pedo. pedo fashion moda fashionable de moda fast (adj) rápido. fast (v) ayunar fast food comida rápida fat (adj) gordo. fat (n) grasa. fate destino father el padre father-in-law suegro faucet llave (lat). grifo (sp) fault defecto, falla. favorite favorito, preferido favor favor fax fax fear (n) el miedo. fear (v) temer, tener miedo a, de feathers las plumas feature característica February febrero fed up harto (estar) fee honorarios. cuota feed dar de comer feel sentirse. feeling sentimiento female hembra, femenino. fence cerca fender la defensa fertile fértil fetus feto fever fiebre. few pocos, unos pocos. fiancé novio fiancée novia field campo fifteen quince. fifteenth décimo quinto fifth quinto fiftieth quincuagésimo fifty cincuenta. fifty-fifty mitad y mitad. fig el higo fight (n) pelea. fight (v) pelear, combatir, luchar file el fichero, la lima fill llenar fill out rellenar (form) film película filter filtro filth la suciedad fin la aleta final final financial financiero financially económicamente find encontrar, hallar. find out descubrir fine (adj) muy bien. fine (n) multa finger el dedo fingernail la uña fingerprint huella digital finish terminar, acabar. fire fuego. incendio. fire department bomberos fire escape el escape de incendio fire truck el carro de bomberos firecracker petardo fireman el bombero fireplace la chimenea fireworks fuegos artificiales,pirotecnia first primero, al principio. first aid primeros auxilios first floor planta baja(us).primer piso(br) first name nombre de pila fish (n) el pez, el pescado. fish (v) pescar. fish market la pescadería fish shop la pescadería fist puño fit (adj) en forma fit (v) quedar bien fitting room probador five cinco fix (v) arreglar, reparar fizzy gaseoso flag bandera flash (phot) flash flashlight linterna eléctrica flat (adj) llano, plano flavor sabor, aroma. flawless impecable flee escapar. huir flesh carne flight vuelo fling lanzar flippers las aletas flirt flirtear float flotar flood inundación floor el piso, el suelo floppy (disk) disquete floss hilo dental flour harina flower la flor flower shop la floristería flu gripe. fluently con soltura flute flauta fly (insect) la mosca fly (v) volar flying saucer platillo volante foam espuma (from liquid) focus (on) concentrarse en fog niebla, bruma. foggy con neblina, hay niebla, neblina foil papel de aluminio fold doblar folder carpeta folk gente follow seguir, ir detrás de. food la comida, la alimentación, el alimento fool tonto fool around hacer el tonto foot el pie, pata football el fútbol americano football (soccer) fútbol footstep paso for para, por. for, in order, by para for, through, via por forbid prohibir. forbidden prohibido. force fuerza. forzar forecast el pronóstico forehead frente foreign extranjero. foreigner extranjero, extraño. foresee prever forest bosque forest el bosque forever por siempre forge falsificar forget olvidar forgive perdonar, disculpar. fork el tenedor form formulario form (shape) forma formal formal former antiguo fornicate fornicar fortieth cuadragésimo found fundar (school. . ) fountain la fuente four cuatro fourteen catorce fourteenth décimo cuarto fourth cuarto fox el zorro fracture fractura fragment fragmento frame marco (pic) montura(glasses) France francia freak raro, bicho (pers) free libre. gratis. freedom libertad. freely libremente freeze congelar freezer congelador freezing helado French francés. Frenchman francés. frequent frecuente frequently frecuentemente fresh fresco. fridge nevera, refrigerador. fried frito fried egg huevo frito friend amigo, camarada. friendly amigable, amable. friendship amistad frightened asustado frog la rana from de, a partir de. front (in ~ of) delante front bumper la defensa delantera frozen congelado. frozen foods los alimentos congelados fruit la fruta fruit juice el zumo fruit shop la frutería frustrated frustrado fry freír, cocinar en aceite. frying la sartén frying pan sartén. fuel carburante full lleno, completo. full of lleno de full-time jornada completa. fun diversión. fun (for) para divertirse fun (have) divertirse function funcionar funeral el entierro funny divertido fur abrigo de pieles furious furioso furniture el mueble, los muebles fuse el fusible future futuro.

Spanish Dictionary G-H galaxy la galaxia gallery galería gambling juego con apuestas game el juego, la partida. gang banda, bandilla garage el garage garbage la basura garbage can el basurero garden el jardín, el parque gardener jardinero garlic el ajo garment la ropa gas gas, gasolina. gas gauge el medidor de gasolina gas station la gasolinera, la bomba gasoline la gasolina gate puerta gather (info.) reunir gay gay geese gansos gel gomina (hair). gel(shower) general general. generally generalmente, en general generation generación generous generoso genetics genética genius genio gentleman el señor gently con delicadeza genuine auténtico, genuino geography la geografía geometry la geometría germ germen German alemán. Germany alemania get conseguir, lograr, recibir. get by pasar get down bajarse get in (vehicle) entrar en, subir al get off (bus) bajarse del get up levantarse. se despierta. ghost fantasma. gift regalo. gifted con talento gipsy gitano giraffe la jirafa girl la chica, niña. girlfriend novia give dar. give back devolver give birth dar a luz. give in rendirse give up rendirse, abandonar. glad contento, alegre, feliz. glass el vidrio. el vaso, la copa. glasses las gafas. los lentes (lat) glory gloria gloves los guantes glue (n) cola, pegamento glue (v) pegar go ir, andar, marchar. go ahead! siga! go back volver go by (cars, time) pasar go down bajar (escalera) go out salir go up subir go! siga! adelante! go-ahead luz verde goal objetivo, gol. goalkeeper portero. arquero (lat) goat el chivo, la cabra God Dios. godsend regalo del cielo gold oro. golden de oro golf golf. good buen, bueno. bien. good-bye adiós,hasta la vista,-luego good-for-nothing inútil good-looking guapo goodness bondad goods mercancías goose el ganso gorgeous maravilloso gosh! caramba! gossip cotillear government gobierno. governor gobernador grab agarrar grade curso (edu). nota (mark) gradually poco a poco graduate licenciado (univ) grain grano grammar gramática. granddaughter la nieta grandfather el abuelo grandmother la abuela grandson el nieto grant subvención grapefruit la toronja, el pomelo grapes las uvas grass hierba. grasshopper el saltamontes grateful agradecido gratuity propina grave tumba graveyard cementerio. gravity gravedad gray gris grease la grasa greasy grasiento great grande, gran. greater mayor greedy (for food) glotón greedy (money) codicioso green verde, green bean la habichuela green card la carta verde green peas los guisantes greet saludar grenade granada grilled a la parrilla grind moler (coffee). picar (meat) groceries comestibles grocery store la tienda de ultramarinos ground suelo. ground beef la carne molida ground floor el piso bajo, la planta baja ground meat carne picada group grupo. grow aumentar de tamaño grow up crecer. grown-up adulto guarantee (n) (v) garantía. garantizar guess (v) adivinar guest (hotel) huésped guest (house) invitado, visitante guide (n) guía. guide (v) guiar, conducir, dirigir. guilty culpable guitar guitarra gulf el golfo gulp trago (of water) gum chicle. encía (mouth) gun pistola, arma. guy tipo gym gimnasio.

habit hábito, costumbre hacker pirata informático hacksaw la sierra para metales hair el pelo, el cabello hair spray laca haircut el corte del pelo hairdresser peluquero half medio hall el pasillo ham el jamón hamburger hamburguesa hammer el martillo hand la mano handbag la bolsa, la cartera (lat), handcuffs las esposas handicapped minusválido handkerchief pañuelo handle manilla (door). mango (knife) handlebars los manubrios hand-made hecho a mano handsome guapo. atractivo hang colgar hang up colgar el teléfono hanger colgador, gancho happen pasar happiness la felicidad happy feliz, alegre, contento. happy birthday feliz cumpleaños happy new year feliz año nuevo harbor puerto. hard duro, difícil. hardly apenas hard-working trabajador harmless inofensivo harmony armonía harvest cosecha hat el sombrero, la gorra, el gorro. hate odiar, detestar, repugnar. have tener, poseer. have just+(past part) acabar de + (inf) have to tener que. hawk el halcón he Él. head la cabeza headache dolor de cabeza headlights las luces delanteras headphones auriculares, audífonos heal curar health salud, sanidad. health club gimnasio health insurance seguro de enfermedad hear oír. heart corazón, alma. heart attack el infarto heart failure paro cardíaco heat calor heat up calentar heating calefacción heaven cielo heavy pesado Hebrew hebreo. heel talón (foot) height altura. helicopter helicóptero hell infierno. hello hola! saludo. helmet el casco help (n) ayuda, socorro. help (v) ayudar, asistir. help! socorro! helpful Útil her su, de ella, a ella. la herb hierba herbs las hierbas here aquí, acá. hero héroe heroin heroína hesitate dudar, vacilar hiccup hipo hide esconder(s). hide & seek escondite high alto, de mucha altura. high (tall) alto high blood pressure alta presión sanguínea high heels los zapatos de tacón alto high school escuela secundaria, colegio. high tide la marea alta highway autopista hiking senderismo hill colina him le, lo, a él. hint pista hip la cadera hippopotamus el hipopótamo hire contratar, alquilar …. his su, sus. historical histórico history la historia hit golpear, chocar. hitchhiking hacer auto-stop hobby pasatiempo. hockey el hockey hog el cerdo hold sostener, contener hold on esperar hole hueco, abertura. agujero holiday día de fiesta, vacaciones holy santo home casa, domicilio, hogar. homeless sin casa homepage página principal homework deberes (edu) homosexual homosexual honest honesto, sincero, honrado. honey miel, dulzura. honeymoon la luna de miel honor honor hood la capota hoof casco hook anzuelo (fishing) hope esperar hopeful optimista horizontal horizontal horn cuerno horny cachondo (sexually) horrible horrible horse el caballo hospital hospital. host anfitrión hostage rehén hostel albergue hostile agresivo hot caliente, cálido, caluroso. hot (weather) hace calor hot dog perrito caliente hotel hotel, motel. hour hora. house la casa, la habitación, la morada. housewife el ama de casa how far? hasta donde? cuanto hay? how many? cuántos? how much? cuánto? how? cómo. hubcap el tapón hug abrazo human being humano humanity humanidad humid húmido. humidity humedad hummingbird el colibrí humor humor hundred cien hundredth centésimo hungry tiene hambre. hunt (v) cazar hunter cazador hurricane huracán hurry up! date prisa! hurt herir, dañar hurt oneself lastimarse husband el marido/ el esposo hut cabaña hymn (him) himno I (me) yo ice hielo. ice cream el helado ice cream shop le heladería ID carné de identidad, idea idea, concepto. ideal ideal idol Ídolo if si, en caso de. ignorant ignorante, iletrado. ignore ignorar iguana la iguana ill enfermo. illegal ilegal illiterate analfabeto illness enfermedad. illusion ilusión image imagen. imaginary imaginario imagination imaginación imagine imaginarse imitate imitar immediately inmediatamente, ahora. immigrant inmigrante, extranjero. immigrate inmigrar. immigration inmigración immoral inmoral immune system sistema inmunológico impatient impaciente. import importar important importante impossible imposible impress impresionar impression impresión imprint impresión (credit card) improve mejorar in en, dentro, dentro de. in (on) en in front of delante de in order to para, a fin de. inch pulgada include incluir included incluido income ingresos (pl) inconvenience inconveniencia increase aumentar indeed ciertamente indeed! de veras independent independiente. index Índice India india individual individual (adj) indoor de interior industry industria inevitable inevitable infect infectar infection infección infinite infinito influence influencia inform informar information información, aviso. ingredient ingrediente inhaler inhalador inherit heredar initial inicial inject inyectar injection inyección injured herido injury herida ink la tinta in-laws familia política innocent inocente insect insecto inside dentro, en, dentro de. insist insistir inspire inspirar install instalar instead of en lugar de instinct instinto institute instituto instructions instrucciones insulin insulina insult (n) insulto. insult (v) insultar, ofender. insurance el seguro, aseguramiento. intellectual intelectual intelligent inteligente. intend pretender, intentar. intensive intensivo (study. . ) intention intención interested interesado interesting interesante international internacional internet internet interpreter intérprete intersection el cruce interview entrevista into en intolerable insoportable introduce presentar intruder intruso invalid nulo invent inventar invention invención invest invertir investigation investigación invisible invisible invitation invitación invite invitar. iron (clothes ~) Plancha iron (metal) hierro. iron (v) planchar ironing board tabla de planchar irrigate regar irritate irritar Islam islam. mahometismo. island la isla it Él, ella, le , lo. it is necessary to + inf. hay que + infinitive it’s cold hace frío it’s hot hace calor Italian italiano. Italy Italia itching picazón item artículo ivory el marfil

jacket la chaqueta jail la cárcel jam mermelada, confitura January enero Japan japón jar el frasco, el tarro jaw mandíbula jealous celoso, envidioso. jeans pantalones vaqueros. jesus jesús. jew judío jeweler las joyas jeweler's joyería jewelry box el joyero Jewish (adj) judío job job, trabajo, empleo. jogging footing join hacer socio (become member) joke (n) chiste, broma. joke (v) bromear. journalist el periodista journey el viaje joy la alegría joystick joystick judge (n) el juez. judge (v) juzgar. judgment day día del juicio final juice jugo, zumo. July julio. jump saltar jumper pichi June junio. jungle la selva junk trastos junk food comida basura jury el jurado just justo, nada más, no más. justice justicia justify justificar kangaroo canguro keep mantener, guardar. ketchup ketchup kettle hervidor de agua key llave. keyboard teclado kick (n) el puntapié, patada kick (v) dar patadas a alguien kid niño, chamaco. kidnap secuestrar kidneys riñones kill matar. kind (adj) amable, bueno, afable. kind (n) tipo kindergarten guardería king rey. kingdom reino kiosk quiosco kiss (n) el beso. kiss (v) besar. kit equipo kitchen la cocina kitchen sink el fregadero kitten gatito knee la rodilla knife el cuchillo knight caballero knock (on door) llamar. know saber, conocer. knowledge los conocimientos Koran Corán, Alcorán

label etiqueta laces los cordones lack (n) falta lack (v) faltar ladder escalera de mano ladies room servicio de señoras lady señora lake el lago, laguna. lamb el cordero, carne de cordero. lame cojo lamp la lámpara land (n) tierra, suelo. land (piece of ~) el terreno land (v) aterrizar. landing aterrizaje lane camino language el idioma languages las lenguas / los idiomas lantern farol laptop computadora portátil. large grande laser láser last (v) durar. último, final. late tarde, a última hora. lately recientemente laugh (n) la risa. laugh (v) reír. Laundromat la lavandería laundry (serv) el servicio de lavandería law ley. lawyer el abogado, defensor. lay dejar, poner lazy perezoso, flojo. lead (n) plomo lead (v) ir a la cabeza, conducir leader el líder, comandante leaf la hoja leak (of gas) fuga leak (v) fugarse, escaparse lean (v) estar inclinado leap saltar learn aprender. least el menos least (at ~) por lo menos leather cuero. leave salir, irse. lecture conferencia left izquierda. left handed zurdo leftovers (food) sobras leg la pierna, pata. legend la leyenda legitimate legítimo leisure ocio. tiempo libre lemon el limón lemonade limonada lend prestar. length la longitud lenses las lentillas leopard leopardo less menos. less... than menos...que lesson lección, clase. let dejar, permitir. letter la carta letter carrier el cartero lettuce la lechuga level nivel, grado. liar mentiroso. library la biblioteca license permiso lick (v) lamer lid tapa lie (n) mentira lie (v) mentir, decir mentiras lie down acostarse life vida, animación. lifeguard el socorrista lifejacket chaleco salvavidas lift levantar light (adj) ligero light (n) luz, lámpara. light bulb bombilla light year el año luz lighter encendedor lightning relámpago like (adv) como. like (v) gustar, querer. lime el limón, la lima limit límite limo(sine) limusina line línea, fila. linguist lingüista linguistics la lingüística link conexión lion el león lip el labio lipstick barra (o lápiz) de labios liquid líquido. liquor bebida alcohólica list lista. listen escuchar literature literatura little (adv) (adj) poco. un poco de. chico. live vivir. liver hígado. living room la sala de recibo, el salón lizard lagarto llama la llama load carga. cargar loan préstamo lobby el recibidor lobster la langosta local (adj) de la región local (n) local lock (n) el seguro, la cerradura lock (v) cerrar locker cajón log tronco (wood) lollipop piruleta lonely solo long largo, mucho tiempo. look (n) apariencia, aire. look (v) mirar, ver, parecer. look after cuidar look for buscar look out tener cuidado. ojo! loose suelto (clothes) loot saquear lord señor lorry camión lose perder. perderse. lost perdido, extraviado. lost & found oficina de objetos perdidos lot (of) mucho de lotion la loción loud fuerte, alto loudspeaker altavoz (sp).altoparlante(lat) lounge (hotel) salón love (n) el amor love (to be in ~) estar enamorado love (v) amar, querer, adorar. lovely lindo, adorable, precioso lover amante loving cariñoso low tide la marea baja low, short bajo loyal fiel lucky afortunado, feliz. luggage el equipaje lunch el almuerzo lung pulmón. luxurious lujosa luxury el lujo lyrics letra

Spanish Dictionary M-O macaroni macarrones machine máquina, aparato. mad enojado, loco (crazy) madhouse casa de locos magazine revista magic magia magnet imán magnifying glass lupa maid la empleada, la muchacha mail (n) el correo mail (v) enviar por correo. mail carrier el cartero mailbox el buzón mailman cartero main principal main course el plato principal majority mayoría make hacer, fabricar. preparar make up one's mind decidirse makeup el maquillaje male macho, hombre. masculino mall centro comercial. man el hombre, el macho. manage dirigir(business).gestionar(fin) management administración manager gerente, jefe, manager. mango el mango mankind la humanidad manner manera, forma, modo. manners educación (mala/buena ~) mantis la mantis manufacture fabricación many muchos, bastantes, varios. map el mapa marble mármol march marzo marital status estado civil mark nota(edu).marca,mancha(stain) marker rotulador market mercado. market (open-air ~) el mercado (al aire libre) marmalade mermelada de naranja marriage matrimonio, casamiento. married casado. marry casarse con. mashed potatoes puré de papas mason cantero massage masaje mastermind cerebro mat estera (for floor) match (game) el partido match (v) igualar matches cerillas, fósforos material (cloth) tejido (fabric), tela math las matemáticas matter asunto (affair) mattress colchón mature maduro maximum máximo may mayo may tal vez, a lo mejor,acaso. maybe tal vez, es posible,acaso. mayonnaise mayonesa me me, a mí. meadow prado meal la comida mean (adj) malo, cruel, tacaño (per) mean (v) significar meaning significado. means medios, modos measure (v) medir measurements medidas measuring tape la cinta métrica meat la carne meat shop la carnicería mechanic el mecánico medal medalla medical médico medicine medicina, medicamento medicine cabinet el botiquín meditation meditación medium mediano meet encontrarse con. conocer meeting reunión melon el melón melt ablandar, disolver,fundir. member (club) socio membership afiliación memorize aprender de memoria. memory memoria. mend servicio de caballeros men's room reparar mentality mentalidad mention mencionar menu el menú, la carta merchandise mercadería (lat).mercancías mercy compasión merry Christmas feliz navidad mess desorden. lío message el mensaje metal metal. metal detector el detector de metales meteorite meteorito method método Mexico méxico microphone micrófono microwave el horno microondas midday mediodía. middle (in~) en medio de midget enano midnight medianoche mike micro mildew moho mile milla 1. 6 km military ejército. milk leche. mill molina. million millón, millones de. mind (n) mente, mentalidad, miente. mind (v) importar. mine mina mineral mineral mineral water el agua mineral minimum mínimo minister ministro minority minoría mint menta (herb).casa de moneda,nuevo minus menos minute minuto miracle milagro mirror el espejo miser avaro mislead engañar mispronounce pronunciar mal miss (n) señorita miss (v) extrañar,faltar a. missile misil missing perdido mission misión misspell escribir incorrectamente mistake error, falta. misty hay neblina misunderstand entender mal misunderstanding equivocación, malentendido mix mezclar mix up (with) confundir con mixer batidora mixture mezcla mix-up (n) confusión mobile el móvil model (girl) modelo modern moderno modest modesto (pers) modify modificar moisturizer la leche hidratante molar muela mold (food) moho mole lunar (skin) moment momento Monday lunes. money dinero. moneda. monitor monitor monk monje monkey el mono, mico. monster monstruo month el mes monument monumento mood humor, gana moody de humor cambiante moon luna. moose el alce mop (for floor) la fregona, la limpiadora moral moral more más more... than más...que moreover además morning mañana mortgage hipoteca, préstamo Moslem musulmán (adj, n) mosque mezquita. mosquito el mosquito most el más, lo más, más. most of la mayor parte de moth mariposa. polilla (clothes) mother la madre, mama. mother-in-law suegra motive motivo motorcycle motocicleta motorway autopista motto lema mountain la montaña, monte, sierra. mouse el ratón moustache el bigote mouth la boca move (v) mover, mudarse. movimiento movie película, cinta, film. movies (cinema) el cine mow (grass) cortar Mr. señor. Mrs. señora. ms. señorita. much mucho. muy, demasiado. mucus mocos mud barro muddy barrosa muffin magdalena mule mulo multilingual multilingüe multiply multiplicar mumble farfullar murder (n) asesinato. murder (v) asesinar murderer asesino, matador muscle músculo museum museo mushrooms champiñones music la música musician el músico musk almizcle Muslim musulmán, islámico. mussels mejillones must deber, tener que. mustache bigote mustard mostaza my mi, mis, oh dios mío. myself yo, yo mismo. mystery misterio myth mito

nail uña (body), clavo (metal). nail clippers cortaúñas nail polish el esmalte para las uñas naked desnudo, corito. name nombre. nanny niñera nap cabezada napkin la servilleta narrow estrecho, angosto. nasty desagradable nation nación. nationality nacionalidad. native nativo native speaker hablante nativo native tongue lengua materna natural natural, al natural. nature natura, naturaleza. nausea náusea navy armada marina near cerca, cerca de. nearly casi necessary necesario, obligatorio. neck el cuello necklace el collar need (n) necesidad. need (v) necesitar needle aguja. negative negativo neglected abandonado neighbor vecino. neighborhood barrio, vecindad. neither, either tampoco neither... nor nephew el sobrino nerve nervio. nervous nervioso nest nido net una red (fishing) net weight peso neto network red never (ever) nunca, jamás new nuevo, recién. new year el año nuevo New York nueva york. news noticias. newspaper el periódico next próximo, después, luego. next door junto, vecino , cerca de. next to de al lado nice simpático nice (person) amable, simpático nice (place) bonito, lindo (lat) nice (weather) buen tiempo nickname apodo niece la sobrina night noche. night club el club nocturno night shift turno de noche nightmare pesadilla nine nueve. nineteen diecinueve. nineteenth décimo noveno ninetieth nonagésimo ninety noventa. ninth noveno nipple el pezón, la mamila, la tetilla no no, ningún. no longer más ya, ya más. nobody, not anybody nadie noise ruido. noisy ruidoso none ninguno, nada. nonsense disparate nonsmoker no fumador (pers) nonsmoking no fumador nonstop directo, sin escalas noodles tallarines (chinos) noon mediodía. nor ni normal normal, regular. normally normalmente north norte. nose la nariz nosy entrometido not no. not even ni siquiera note nota notebook el cuaderno notebook (laptop) computadora portátil nothing nada. nothing else nada más notice (n) anuncio. aviso (warning) notice (v) notar, fijarse en noun nombre. novel la novela November noviembre now ahora, actualmente. nowadays hoy en día nuclear weapon arma nuclear number número. nurse la enfermera, ama. nut la nuez, tuerca (for bolt) nuts (crazy) chalado nuts (fruits) los frutos secos o.k. vale! muy bien, de acuerdo. oasis oasis obedient obediente obese obeso obey hacer caso, obedecer. object (aim) objetivo object (thing) objeto, cosa. oblige obligar obscure oscuro observe observar obsessed estar obsesionado con/por obstacle obstáculo obtain obtener. obvious obvio. evidente occupation profesión, ocupacion. occur ocurrir ocean el océano, el mar October octubre. octopus pulpo odd raro. extraño odor olor, perfume. of de, en, por. of course claro que si, cómo no. off season temporada baja(rates, vac) offer ofrecer office la oficina office building el edificio de oficinas official oficial (adj) offspring vástagos often a menudo oil el aceite ointment pomada, ungüento old viejo, antiguo. old man el anciano old woman la anciana olive aceituna, oliva, olivo. olive oil el aceite de oliva omelet tortilla on (over) encima de, sobre, . on foot a pie on purpose a propósito. on the contrary al contrario. once una vez once (at) en seguida one uno , único. onion la cebolla online en línea only solo, no más. solamente. open (adj) abierto open (v) abrir. open-air al aire libre open-minded de actitud abierta operation operación (med) operator el telefonista opinion opinión, concepto. opportunity oportunidad oppose oponerse. opposed to estar en contra de opposite contrario opposite (in front of) en frente de optimistic optimista option opción optional optativo or o. orange anaranjado orange juice jugo de naranja(lat)zumo de.. orchid la orquídea order ordenar, pedir. la orden organization organización organize organizar orgasm orgasmo origin origen. original original orphan huérfano other otro, otros. otherwise si no our nuestro (a) out fuera de. fuera! outdoor al aire libre outdoor market el mercado output salida (comp) outside fuera de, afuera de. oven el horno over encima, encima de. over there allí overalls el overol, el peto overcoat el sobretodo overcome superar, vencer overlook pasar por alto overseas en el extranjero overstate exagerar overthrow derrocar owe deber. owl el búho, la lechuza own (v) poseer, tener. propio. owner propietario ox buey oxygen oxígeno oyster ostra. pacifier el chupador, el chupete pack (suitcases) hacer las maletas package el paquete package tour el viaje organizado padlock candado pagan pagano page página. paid pagado pain dolor. painful doloroso paint (n) pintura. paint (v) pintar painter el pintor painting la pintura pair el par pajamas el pijama palace palacio, alcázar. pale pálido palm palma (hand). palmera (tree) pan cacerola panties la pantaleta panties (woman) calzones (lat). bragas (sp) pants los pantalones pantyhose la pantimedia papaya la papaya paper el papel paper store la papelería parachute paracaídas paradise paraíso. parallel paralelo paramedic el paramédico paranoid paranoico parasol la sombrilla pardon perdonar, disculpar. perdón pardon me perdóneme. parents padres. park (v) aparcar parking lot aparcamiento parrot el loro parsley el perejil part la parte participate participar, concurrir. particle partícula partner socio (com). compañero party (n) fiesta. party (v) hacer fiesta. pass (a place) pasar por adelante de pass (exam) aprobar un examen passengers pasajeros. viajeros. passion pasión passport el pasaporte password contraseña past (adj) pasado. past (n) pasado. pasta pasta pastime pasatiempo pastry shop la pastelería path camino patient paciente, enfermo. patrol patrulla pay (n) salario. pay (v) pagar, pago. pay back devolver el dinero pay check cheque del sueldo payment pago, abono. peace paz. peach el melocotón peanut cacahuete pear la pera peas los guisantes pedal el pedal peel (fruit) pelar pen la pluma, el bolígrafo. pen pal amigo por correspondencia pencil el lápiz peninsula la península penis pene. penniless sin un centavo penny centavo. people la gente, personas. pepper la pimienta (polvo), el pimiento. pepper shaker el pimentero percent por ciento. percentage porcentaje perfect perfecto performance representación perfume perfume, olor. perhaps quizá period (fem) regla permanent permanente, durable. permission permiso, autorización. permit (n) licencia permit (v) permitir, autorizar,permiso. person persona. person (in~) en persona persuade to persuadir pessimistic pesimista pet mascota, animal doméstico petrol gasolina pharmacist el farmacéutico pharmacy la farmacía phone (v) llamar por teléfono. phone book guía telefónica phone call llamada telefónica phone card tarjeta telefónica photo foto. photo album álbum de fotos photo shop la tienda de fotografía photocopier fotocopiadora photocopy fotocopiar physics la fisica piano piano. pick escoger. elegir pick up (phone) coger pickpocket cortabolsas, ratero pickup (truck) camioneta picky tiquismiquis picture el cuadro, el retrato piece pedazo, trozo, pieza. pig el cerdo, el puerco, el marrano. pile un montón (de trabajo) pilgrimage peregrinación pill píldora pillar pilar, columna pillow la almohada pilot el piloto pin el alfiler, el prendedor pincers tenazas pineapple la piña pink rosado, modelo. pious piadoso pistol la pistola pitcher la jarra pizza pizza. place lugar plague plaga plain plano plan (n) plan. plan (v) planear, programar. planet planeta. plant (n) planta. plant (v) plantar. plaster tirita, yeso, esparadrapo plastic plástico plate el plato, la vajilla plate, dish el plato platform la plataforma, el andén play (v) jugar. playboy playboy player (f) la jugadora player (m) el jugador

please por favor. pleased contento pliers los alicates plough (plau) arar. arado plug enchufe plug (electricity) el enchufe. plum la ciruela plumber fontanero plural plural. plus (n) ventaja pneumonia pulmonía pocket bolsillo, bolsa. poetry poesía point punto (compet) point of view punto de vista poison envenenar, veneno, poción. poisonous venenoso Poland polonia police la policía. police force la policía policeman el policía policy póliza polish (shoe) el betún polite educado, cortés. politics política pollen polen polluted contaminado pool piscina,pileta,alberca(mex) pool (game) billar americano poop caca poor pobre. pobrecito poorly mal popular popular population población porch el balcón pork el cerdo pork butcher la chacinería porn porno port puerto porter (luggage) mozo Portugal portugal position posición, plaza, situación. possess poseer possible posible. post office la oficina de correos, el correo postcard la tarjeta postal, la postal postman el cartero pot (cooking) la olla, la cacerola potato la papa, la patata potatoes papas. camotes, patatas. pottery cerámica pound libra. pour verter pour (water) echar pouring lloviendo a cántaros poverty pobreza powder polvo. power poder, fuerza. practice práctica. practicar praise elogiar pray (v) rezar. prayer oración, rezo. prefer preferir, gustar más. pregnant embarazada, encinta. prepare preparar prescription receta médica present presente. regalo. president presidente. press la prensa pressure presión pretend hacer como. fingir pretty lindo, bonito, guapo prevent impedir. evitar previous anterior. previo prey presa price precio, valor. price (fixed) el precio (fijo) priceless que no tiene precio priest sacerdote. cura prince príncipe princess princesa print imprimir printer impresor priority prioridad prison prisión, cárcel. prisoner prisionero private privado privilege privilegio prize premio problem el problema, dificultad. produce producir. fabricar product producto profession profesión professor el profesor profile perfil program (n) programa. program (v) programar progress progreso progress (make) hacer progresos prohibited prohibido project proyecto promise promesa. prometer promotion ascenso pronounce pronunciar proof prueba (s) property propiedad (es) prophet profeta. propose sugerir prosecutor el acusador prosperity prosperidad prostitute prostituta prostitution prostitución protect proteger, abrigar. proud orgulloso prove demostrar proverb proverbio provide proveer (de) public publico. public holiday el día festivo publish publicar pull jalar, tirar. jale! pulse pulso pump la bomba pumpkin calabaza punch dar un puñetazo punctual puntual puncture perforar punish castigar, disciplinar puppy perrito pure puro, muy limpio. purple morado purpose propósito, objeto purse el monedero, la bolsa push empujar. put poner, posar, aplicar. put on ponerse (la ropa) put on (clothes) ponerse quality calidad quantity cantidad quarrel (n) riña, disputa quarrel (v) pelear, discutir. quarter cuarto queen reina. question pregunta. queue cola quick rápido, listo, veloz. quickly rápidamente, a prisa. quiet (place) tranquilo, silencioso quit dejar (job) quite bastante quiz concurso

Spanish Dictionary R-S rabbit el conejo Race (ethics…) raza race (sports) carrera racism racismo. racist racista rack el estante racket una raqueta radar radar radiation radiación radio la radio radish el rábano railroad ferrocarril railway ferrocarril. rain (n) la lluvia. rain (v) llover. raincoat el impermeable raining lloviendo rainy lluvioso raise aumento de sueldo raisin pasa random (at~) al azar rank rango (society) rape violar rapidly rápidamente rare raro, excepcional. rare (steak) poco hecho rarely raras veces rasp la escofina raspberry la frambuesa rat la rata rate tarifa, precio raw crudo razor maquinilla de afeitar reach alcanzar reaction reacción read leer. ready listo. alistarse!prepararse! ready (get ~) prepararse real (adj) (adv) real. realmente. real estate bienes inmuebles reality realidad. realize darse cuenta de really en realidad. de veras. rear bumper la defensa trasera rearview mirror el espejo retrovisor reason razón, causa, motivo. receipt recibo. receive recibir recently recientemente reception la recepción reception desk recepción receptionist recepcionista recipe receta recliner el sillón reclinable recognize reconocer recommend recomendar record el récord record (music) disco record (v) grabar (electonically) recover recuperarse red rojo. reduce rebajar (price). reducir reflector el reflector refrigerator la nevera, el frigorífico, el refrigerador refugee refugiado refund (n) reembolso. refund (v) rembolsar. refuse negarse a hacer algo regardless a pesar de todo region región register registrarse, matricularse registered certificado registration registro. matriculación (univ) reimburse rembolsar relationship relación. relax relajarse release liberar reliable seguro relief alivio religion religión religious religioso remain (v) quedarse, restar. remember recordar, acordarse de. remind recordar algo a alguien remote control mando a distancia remove eliminar rent (v) (n) alquilar, rentar. renta repair reparar (tv). arreglar repeat repetir. reply (n) respuesta reply (v) responder reporter reportero reputation reputación reputed to be tener fama de ser request (on ~) por encargo require requerir. necesitar rescue rescatar reservation reserva reserve reservar reserved reservado resident residente, habitante. resign dimitir de resignation dimisión resist resistir respect respeto. respetar responsible (for) responsable de rest (~ of) resto rest (n) descanso. rest (v) descansar. restaurant el restaurante restroom servicios restroom baños. result resultado resume currículum (vitae) retire jubilarse retired jubilado, retirado. return regresar, devolverse.regreso return address el remitente return ticket el billete de ida y vuelta revenge venganza revolution revolución revolver revólver reward recompensa. recompensar rhinoceros el rinoceronte rhubarb el ruibarbo rhythm ritmo rice arroz. rich rico ride montar a ridiculous ridículo rifle rifle right (adj-adv) correcto. bien. right (n) derecho. right (to be ~) tener razón ring (n) anillo. ring (v) timbrar, sonar. ripe maduro risk riesgo. peligro rival rival river el río road carretera, calle, camino. roasted asado rob robar a robber ladrón. robe la bata robin el petirrojo robot robot rock roca rocket cohete roll el panecillo roll over darse la vuelta roller blade patín en línea romantic romántico roof el techo, el tejado. room el cuarto, la sala. room service servicio de habitaciones root raíz rope cuerda, cable. rose la rosa rotten podrido rough áspero (hand), ronco (voice) rough (sea) picado round redondo round trip ticket boleto de ida y vuelta round-the-world alrededor del mundo routine rutina royal real rub frotar rubber band cinta de goma. gomita rubbish basura. rude maleducado rug el tapete, la alfombra rule regir, gobernar. rule (n) regla ruler (tool) regla rumor rumor run away escaparse, correrse. rush hacer algo con prisas rush hour hora punta Russia rusia rust Óxido rusty oxidado

sacred sagrado sacrifice sacrificio sad triste, afligido. sadness la tristeza safe (adj) seguro. safe (n) caja fuerte. safety seguridad sail navegar sailor marinero, marino. saint santo salad la ensalada salary sueldo, pago, salario. sale venta sale (discount) la rebaja, la liquidacion sale (on ~) en oferta, en rebaja salesman el vendedor salesperson vendedor saliva saliva salmon el salmón salt la sal salt shaker el salero salty salado. same mismo, el mismo. sample muestra sand la arena sandals las sandalias sandwich el sándwich Santa Claus papá noel sarcastic sarcástico sardines sardinas satellite satélite satisfy satisfacer sauce salsa, compota. saucepan cacerola sausage la salchicha, el chorizo save ahorrar. salvar. guardar (doc) savings ahorros say decir scale la escala, la balanza scanner escáner scar cicatriz scarf la bufanda schedule programa, horario scheme plan, proyecto scholar erudito scholarship beca school escuela science la ciencia scissors unas tijeras score (n) puntuación. score (v) marcar (goal) scorpion el alacrán scouring el estropajo scrambled huevos revueltos scratch (v) arañar scream gritar. grito screen pantalla, monitor screw tornillo screw up meter la pata screwdriver el destornillador scrub (v) fregar sea el mar seafood los mariscos seagull la gaviota seal foca search engine motor de búsqueda search for buscar season estación seat el asiento, la silla, el sillín seaweed el alga second segundo. second floor el primer piso secret secreto. secret agent agente secreto secretary el/la b2967secretario/a section (build) zona, parte security seguridad, guardia. security guard el guardia see ver, mirar. seed semilla seem parecer, mirarse seizure ataque (med) select seleccionar self-confident seguro de sí mismo selfish egoísta self-taught autodidacta sell vender. seller vendedor send enviar, mandar. sensitive sensible sent to (letter ~) destinatario sentence oración separate (adj) separado separate (v) separar separated separado September septiembre serious grave. serio (person) servant criado, mozo serve servir service servicio service station la estación de servicio seven siete. seventeen diecisiete. seventeenth décimo séptimo seventh séptimo seventieth septuagésimo seventy setenta. several varios. several, some varios sew coser sewage aguas residuales sex sexo. sexy sexy shade sombra shake agitar. shallow poco profundo shame la vergüenza shameless desvergonzado, sin vergüenza shampoo el champú shape forma share compartir, dividirse. parte. shark el tiburón sharp afilado, agudo. shave afeitar. shaving cream la crema de afeitar she ella sheep la oveja, el borrego sheet (sleeping) sábana shell concha, cáscara (eggs) shellfish los mariscos shelter refugio shelves estantería shepherd pastor shin la espinilla ship barco, buque. shipping envío shirt la camisa shit mierda shiver tiritar shoes los zapatos shoot disparar. matar de un tiro (kill) shop (n) la tienda, almacén. shop (v) hacer compras, ir de ~ shopping (go ~) ir de compras shopping (n) las compras. shopping basket la canasta de compras shopping mall el centro comercial short pequeño, --de tamaño, corto shorts los pantalones cortos, los calzoncillos should deber, debería… shoulder el hombro shout (n) el grito shout (v) gritar. shovel pala show mostrar, espectáculo. shower la ducha, el baño de ducha shower cap el gorro de baño shrimps los camarones shrink encoger shut (adj) cerrado shut (v) cerrar shuttle bus autobús de conexión shy tímido, vergonzoso sick enfermo side lado sidewalk acera, (mex) banqueta sigh suspirar sightseeing la excursión turística sign (n) signo, señal. sign (v) firmar. signal señal signature firma. silence silencio. silencio! silk seda. silly tonto silver plata. similar similar, semejante, parecido simple simple, fácil. sencillo simply sencillamente sin pecado since desde. desde que, ya que sincere sincero sing cantar. singer cantante single soltero, sujeto. single/ double room la habitación individual/ doble sink el fregadero, el lavamanos sink (v) hundirse sinus seno sir señor, caballero. sister la hermana sister-in-law cuñada sit down sentarse, tomar asiento. situation situación six seis. sixteen dieciséis. sixteenth décimo sexto sixth sexto sixtieth sexagésimo sixty sesenta. size tamaño, talla skate (v) patinar skating el patinaje skeleton esqueleto ski (v) esquiar ski poles unos bastones skill habilidad, experiencia. skin piel, cutis. skinny escuálido skirt la falda skull cráneo sky cielo. slang argot, jerga slap (n) bofetada, guantada, palmada slap (v) dar una guantada a alguien slash barra slave esclavo sleep (n) sueño. sleep (v) dormir. sleeping bag saco de dormir sleepy tener sueño sleeve manga slice rebanada slim delgado sling el soporte slip el refajo slip (on ice ) resbalar slippers las zapatillas slippery (adj) escurridizo slow despacio, lento, atrasado slowly lentamente, despacio. small pequeño, bajo, chico (lat) smart inteligente smart ass sabelotodo smell (n) olor, olfato. smell (v) oler. smile (n) la sonrisa. smile (v) sonreír(se). smoke (n) humo. smoke (v) fumar. smuggle pasar de contrabando smuggling contrabando snack el bocadillo, tentempié snack bar cafetería snail caracol snake la serpiente, la víbora sneakers unos deportivos sneeze estornudar snore roncar snow (n) nieve snow (v) nevar snowing nevando snowy nevado so tan. así, entonces. so as to para que, de manera que so far hasta ahora. so much tanto so! !es así, pues !a tal punto! soak poner en remojo soap el jabón soap dish la jabonera sober sobrio soccer el fútbol social social society sociedad. sock el calcetín socket enchufe socks los calcetines soda soda, gaseosa. sofa el sofá soft blando, suave soft drink el refresco soil tierra soldier el soldado solve resolver some algunos, un poco, -- de. some, a few algún/alguna someone alguien something algo. un poco. sometime alguna vez. sometimes a veces, a días. somewhere a alguna parte. en --. son el hijo song canción. canto. son-in-law yerno soon pronto, en seguida. sore dolorido sore throat dolor de garganta sorry apenado. perdón! lo siento sort clase. clase so-so así así soul alma sound sonido. soup la sopa sour agrio, ácido south sur. South Africa sudáfrica souvenir recuerdo sow sembrar (seeds) soy bean semilla de soja

space espacio space station la estación espacial spaghetti espaguetis Spain españa Spanish español. hispánico. spare tire llanta picada sparrow el gorrión speak hablar. speakers altavoz, altoparlente (lat) special especial. species especie specific específico specify especificar specimen muestra speech discurso speed (n) la velocidad. speed (up) acelerar. spell out deletrear. spelling ortografía spend gastar. pasar. sperm (semen) esperma spices especias spicy picante spider la araña spike espiga spill derramar spin dar vueltas, girar spinach la espinaca spine columna vertebral spirit espíritu spirits la moral spit escupir split repartir split personality doble personalidad spoilt (child) consentido, mimado spoke(s) los rayos, el radio sponge la esponja spontaneous espontáneo spoon la cuchara sport el deporte spot (place) lugar spot (stain) mancha spring primavera. fuente de agua sprocket la corona spy espía. espiar square cuadrado, plaza. squash la calabaza squeeze apretar squid el calamar squirrel la ardilla stable estable stadium estadio staff personal stage etapa stain mancha stainless steel acero inoxidable staircase la escalera stairs escaleras. stairway la escalera stamp la estampilla, el sello stamps las estampillas stand-up ponerse de pie. stapler la grapadora staples las grapas star la estrella stare mirar fijamente start (n) principio. start (v) comenzar state estado. statement extracto station estación. stationers la papelería statistics estadística statue estatua (de la libertad) status categoría stay quedarse. permanencia. stay up quedarse levantado steak (steik) el filete, el bisté steal robar. steam vapor steamer buque de vapor steep empinado steering wheel el volante stem el tallo step paso stethoscope el estetoscopio steward el auxiliar de vuelo stewardess azafata stick (baton) palo stick (glue) pegar stick shift la palanca de velocidades sticker pegatina still aún, todavía, --todo. sting (n) (v) picadura sting (v) picar stingray la raya stink apestar stir dar vueltas a la sopa stitches puntos stocking media stockings las medias stomach el estómago, el vientre stomachache dolor de estómago stone piedra. stop bloquear, parar. parada. store tienda, almacén. storm tormenta, temporal. story historia. story (floor) piso stove la cocina, la estufa (mex, ven, col) straight on todo recto, derecho (lat) straighten up arreglar stranger extraño, extranjero. strategy estrategia strawberry la fresa street calle, callejón. street sign el letrero streetcar (tramway) el tranvía strength fuerza stress estrés stressful estresante stretch estirar strict estricto, severo strike huelga string cuerda string tie el lazo strip hacer striptease stroke derrame stroller el carrito strong fuerte, duro. struggle luchar. lucha stubborn testarudo. terco student estudiante, alumno. studies (n) estudios. study (v) estudiar. stuff cosas stupid estúpido, tonto style estilo. moda (fashion) subject tema, asunto submarine submarino submit presentar subscribe suscribirse suburb zona residencial de la periferia subway (train) el tren subterráneo, el metro subway station la estación de metro succeed tener éxito, lograr éxito. success Éxito such tal, tales. suck chupar suddenly de repente, de pronto. suffocate asfixiar(se) sugar el azúcar sugar bowl el azucarero suggest sugerir suicide suicidio suit el traje suitcase la maleta, la valija summer verano. summit cumbre sun sol. sun cream la crema bronceadora sunday domingo. sunglasses anteojos de sol (lat) sunglasses las gafas de sol (esp) sunny soleado sunny day día soleado sunrise el amanecer sunset el atardecer, puesta de sol suntan bronceado super genial, estupendo superficial superficial supermarket el supermercado supervisor supervisor supper la cena, la comida (lat) suppose suponer (supongo) sure seguro. sure (for ~) por cierto. surf (internet) navegar surface superficie. surgeon cirujano surgery cirugía surname apellido. surprise sorpresa. surrender rendirse surround circundar, rodear surrounded by rodeado de surroundings alrededores (of village) survive sobrevivir survivor superviviente suspect sospechoso suspenders tirantes. suspensores (lat) suspicion la sospecha swallow tragarse swan el cisne swear jurar (lo juro) sweat (n) sudor sweat (v) sudar sweater el suéter sweep barrer sweet (v) dulce. sweet potato la batata sweet shop la confitería sweets (n) dulces, caramelos. swell hincharse swim nadar, bañarse. swimming la natación swimming pool la piscina swimsuit el traje de baño swing balancearse switch (n) el interruptor switch to cambiar a swollen hinchado sword espada swordfish el pez espada symbol símbolo symptom síntoma syringe jeringuilla system sistema, método. table la mesa, tabla. tablecloth el mantel tablet pastilla tadpole el renacuajo tag etiqueta tail la cola tail lights las luces traseras tailor's la sastrería, sastre take tomar, coger. take a trip hacer un viaje take off quitarse (la ropa). decolar take off (clothes) quitarse talk (n) la conversación. talk (v) hablar. tall alto. tank el tanque tap grifo, llave (lat) tape cinta tape (audio) la cinta tape recorder magnetófono taste (n) sabor. taste (v) saborear, probar. tasty sabroso tattoo tatuaje tax impuestos. taxi el taxi taxi driver taxista tea té. teach enseñar. teacher el maestro, el profesor. team el equipo teapot la tetera tear la lágrima tear up romper (papel) tears lágrimas tease tomar el pelo a technician técnico teddy bear el oso de peluche teenager adolescente teeth dientes telephone booth cabina telefónica television televisión. tell decir. teller cajero temperature la temperatura temple templo temporary temporal, provisional ten diez. tennis el tenis tent la carpa, la tienda de campaña tenth décimo terrace terraza terrible terrible terrific estupendo terrorist terrorista test prueba. examen text texto. than que. más que, menos que thank agradecer, dar gracias. thanks to gracias a that Ése, eso, ésa. el (la) que the el, la , los , las. the best el mejor the greatest el mayor the least el menor the worst el peor theater el teatro their su, sus, de ellas. . them les, las, los then entonces, después , luego there allí, allá, ahí there is/ are hay there was/ were había thermometer el termómetro these Éstos, éstas. they ellos, ellas. thick grueso, espeso, denso thief el ladrón thigh el muslo thin delgado thing cosa think pensar. third tercero thirsty tiene sed thirteen trece. thirteenth décimo tercero thirtieth trigésimo thirty treinta. this Éste, ésta. those aquellos, esas. esos. though sin embargo thoughts pensamientos thousand mil thousandth milésimo thread hilo threaten amenazar three tres throat la garganta through a través de throw tirar, arrojar. throw away tirar (en la basura) throw up vomitar thumb el pulgar thunder trueno thunderstorm tormenta Thursday jueves.

ticket el billete, el boleto (lat) ticket (round-trip ~) el pasaje (de ida y vuelta) ticklish (be ~) tener cosquillas tide la marea tide (high) marea alta tide (low) marea baja tie la corbata tiger el tigre tight (clothes) ajustado, estrecho tile baldosa (floor), azulejo (wall) till, until hasta time tiempo, hora. timetable horario tin opener abrelatas tiny diminuto tip consejo, propina tire la llanta (lat). el neumático tired cansado, aburrido. tissues pañuelos de papel title título to a, hacia, para. hasta. to be happy alegrarse to be hungry tener hambre to be surprised sorprenderse to be thirsty tener sed to become angry enfadarse to become bored aburrirse to become used to acostumbrarse to get angry enojarse to get bored aburrirse to get dressed vestirse to get ready arreglarse to get scared asustarse to get sick enfermarse to get tired cansarse to go on vacation ir de vacaciones to go to + inf. ir a + inf. to go to bed acostarse to have a good time divertirse to have to (must) tener que + inf. toasted (bread) tostado (pan ~) toaster tostador tobacco shop el estanco (informal) tobacconist's estanco today día de hoy. toe el dedo del pie toenail uña del pie together juntos toilet el retrete, el excusado, los servicios tolerate tolerar toll el peaje tomato el tomate tomb tumba tomorrow mañana tongue la lengua tonight esta noche too también. demasiado. muy. too bad! ¡qué malo! tool herramienta toolbox la caja de herramientas tooth el diente toothbrush el cepillo de dientes toothpaste la pasta de dientes top floor Último piso topic tema tornado tornado tortoise tortuga total total, suma total. touch tocar. tough duro tour (trip) vuelta, visita tourist turista. tournament torneo tow remolcar towards, about hacia towel la toalla tower torre town pueblo, ciudad. town hall ayuntamiento toxic tóxico toy el juguete tradition tradición traditional tradicional traffic tráfico traffic cop el policía de tránsito traffic light el semáforo train el tren train (n) tren. train (v) entrenar. train station la estación de tren trainee aprendiz (a) trainers zapatillas de deporte training el entrenamiento transfer transferir transfer (travel) trasbordo transit (in) en tránsito translate traducir translation traducción translator traductor transparent transparente transportation transporte trap trampa trash basura. trashcan el basurero travel viajar. travel agency la agencia de viajes travel agent agente de viajes traveler's check cheque de viaje tray la bandeja treasure tesoro treat tratar treatment tratamiento tree el árbol trial prueba, ensayo. juicio triangle triángulo tribe tribu trick truco tricycle el triciclo trip viaje, jornada. trolley carrito troops tropas trouble el problema troubles problemas trousers los pantalones trout la trucha truck camión true. cierto, verdadero. trunk (auto) el bañador trunk (elephant) la trompa trust confiar en trusted de confianza truth la verdad try probar, ensayar, tartar. try on probarse

t-shirt la camiseta Tuesday martes. tulip el tulipán tuna el atún tunnel el túnel turkey el pavo turkey Turquía turn (n) vuelta. turn (v) girar. turn down bajar (el volumen) turn off apagar (luz) turn on encender (luz) turn signals las luces direccionales,los intermitentes turn up poner el volumen más fuerte turnip el nabo turnstile el torniquete de entrada turtle la tortuga turtleneck cuello alto tusk el colmillo tweezers pinzas twelfth duodécimo twelve docena. doce. twentieth vigésimo twenty veinte. twenty-first vigésimo primero twenty-second vigésimo segundo twice dos veces. twin gemelo twist retorcer two dos. type (n) tipo. type (v) escribir a máquina. typical típico typist la mecanógrafo tyrant tirano UK reino unido ugly feo. ulcer Úlcera umbrella el paraguas uncle el tío under bajo, debajo de. under shorts el calzoncillo underestimate subestimar undergraduate estudiante universitario. underground subterráneo, metro. underneath debajo, por abajo. undershirt la camiseta understand entender, comprender. understanding comprensivo underwear la ropa interior unemployed desempleado. sin empleo unfit estar en baja forma unfortunately desgraciadamente. unhygienic antihigiénico uniform uniforme union sindicato unique Único. united states los estados unidos university universidad. unknown desconocido. unless a menos que, excepto. unlucky desafortunado. unripe inmaduro. verde. until hasta que, hasta. unused (goods) sin usar up arriba, encima. update actualizar upload cargar upper superior upset (adj) alterado. upset (v) molestar. upside down al revés upstairs arriba urgent urgente. urinate orinar urine la orina us nos USA ee. uu use (n) uso. use (v) usar, aprovechar. used de segunda mano used to estar acostumbrado a useful Útil. usual usual, ordinario. usually por lo general, usualmente vacation vacaciones vacation (in ~) vacación. de vacaciones vacationer veraneante vaccinate vacunar vacuum cleaner la aspiradora vagina vagina vague vago vain (~ in) en vano. valid válido valley el valle value valor valve la válvula van furgoneta, camioneta variety variedad various varios, diversos. vase el jarrón, el florero VCR video vegetables las legumbres, las verduras vegetarian veterinario veil velo vein la vena verb verbo verify verificar verse verso version versión very muy. very little muy poco very much muchísimo, mucho, muy. vest el chaleco vet veterinario veteran veterano via vía victim víctima victory victoria. video camera videocámara videotape cinta (sp), video (lat) view vista villa casa de campo, chalé village pueblo, aldea. vine la enredadera vinegar el vinagre violence violencia violent violento violet la violeta violin violín VIP VIP virgin virgen virus virus visa visado. visible visible visit (n) la visita visit (v) visitar, ir de visita visor la visera vitamin vitamina. v-neck cuello de pico vocabulary vocabulario. voice voz. void (adj) nulo void (v) anular, derogar. volcano volcán volleyball el voleibol volunteer voluntario vomit vomitar vote votar, voto vowel vocal vulgar (pers) vulgar

Spanish Dictionary W-Z wage sueldo, salario waist la cintura wait esperar. waiter camarero, mozo. waiting room sala de espera waitress la mesera, la camarera wake up despertarse. walk (go for) caminar, andar. paseo. walk (n) un paseo walk (v) dar un paseo wall muro (outside), la pared. wallet la cartera want querer. wanted buscado por la policía war guerra wardrobe el guardarropa, el armario warm caliente, caldeado, caluroso warm up calentar (athlete) warn avisar warrior guerrero wash lavar, limpiarse. washbasin lavabo washing machine lavadora wasp avispa waste (v) malgastar (dinero). perder waste bin cubo de basura watch (~ tv) ver la tele, mirar la tele (lat) watch (n) el reloj de pulsera watch (v) observar, watchmaker relojero water agua. waterfall cascada watermelon la sandía wave ola. wax cera way manera, método. camino. we nosotros, nos. weak débil. flojo wealth riqueza weapon arma wear traer, vestir. llevar weather tiempo. website sitio web, sitio wedding boda week semana. weekend fin de semana. weep llorar wee-wee pipí weigh pesar. weight peso. weird raro, extraño welcome (v-adj) acoger. bienvenido weld soldar well (adj) bien. sano. well (n) pozo. west oeste. wet mojado. whale la ballena what qué. cómo! qué! wheel la rueda wheelchair la silla de ruedas when cuando whenever cada vez where dónde, a dónde. wherever donde which cuál, cuáles. while mientras, -- que. whisper susurrar white blanco. who quién. whoever quienquiera whole entero whore prostituta whose de quien why por que. wicked malvado wide ancho, amplio. widow viuda width anchura wife la mujer/ la esposa wild salvaje win ganar. wind (n) viento. wind (v) bobinar. window la ventana windshield el parabrisas windy hace/con viento wine vino wing el ala wink hacer un guiño a alguien winner ganador winter invierno. wipe limpiar wire alambre, cable wireless radio wisdom sabiduría wise sabio wish (n) deseo. wish (v) desear. witch bruja with con withdraw retirar within dentro de without sin witness el testigo witty gracioso wolf el lobo woman mujer, hembra. wonder preguntarse wonderful maravilloso. wood madera, leña. bosque wooden de madera woodpecker el pájaro carpintero wool lana. word palabra. work (n) trabajo. work (v) trabajar. worker trabajador world mundo. worm gusano worried preocupado worry preocuparse worse peor worship adorar. worst el peor worthless no valer nada worthy (be ~ of) merecer would . . . ía wound herida wounded herido/a wrap, coat el abrigo wrench la llave inglesa, la llave wrestling la lucha wrinkle arruga wrist la muñeca write escribir. writer el escritor writing (hand) letra wrong (to be ~) estar equivocado. x-ray radiografía x-rays los rayos equis yacht el yate yard jardín yawn bostezar year año. yeast hez, levadura yell gritar yellow amarillo yes sí. yesterday ayer. yet todavía. you tú. usted, te you (plural) os, vosotros young joven. your tu, su. tuyo. your (plural) vuestro (a) your/ his/ her/ its su your/ their (plural) su youth juventud, youth hostel el albergue juvenil zebra la cebra zero cero zip code código postal zipper cremallera zit (face) grano zone zona zoo zoológico zoology la zoología zoom zoom

List of Spanish Regular Verbs 1.abrir (to open) descubrir (to discover) omitir (to omit) 2.admitir (to admit) desear (to desire) pagar (to pay for) 3.alquilar (to rent) discutir (to discuss) partir (to divide) 4.amar (to love) enseñar (to teach) permitir (to permit) 5.andar (to walk) entrar (en) (to enter (into)) poseer (to possess, to own) 6.aprender (to learn) enviar (to send) practicar (to practice) 7.asistir a (to attend) esconder (to hide) preguntar (to ask) 8.ayudar (to help) escribir (to write) preparer (to prepare) 9.bailar (to dance) escuchar (to listen to) prometer (to promise) 10.beber (to drink) esperar (to hope, to wait for) recibir (to receive) 11.buscar (to look for) estudiar (to study) regresar (to return) 12.caminar (to walk) existir (to exist) romper (to break) 13.cantar (to sing) firmar (to sign) saludar (to greet) 14.cocinar (to cook) ganar (to win, earn) subir (to climb, to go up) 15.comer (to eat) gastar (to spend money) sufrir (to suffer) 16.comprar (to buy) hablar(to speak, to talk) temer (to fear) 17.comprender (to understand) lavar (to wash) tocar (to touch, to play an instrument) 18.contester (to answer) leer (to read) tomar (to take, to drink) 19.correr (to run) llegar (to arrive) trabajar (to work) 20.creer (to believe) llevar (to wear, to carry) unir (to unite) 21.cubrir (to cover) mandar (to order) vender (to sell) 22.deber (to have to, to owe) meter en (to put into) viajar (to travel) 23.decidir (to decide) mirar (to watch, to look at) visitor (to visit ) 25.dejar (to allow, to leave) necesitar (to need) vivir (to live ) 26.describir (to describe) olvidar (to forget)

List of Spanish Irregular Verbs 1.acentuar (to stress/ to accent) decir (to say) intervenir (to take part) 2.abrazar (to embrace) decrecer (to decrease) invertir (to reverse/ to invert) 3.abstenerse (to abstain) defender (to defend) ir (to go) 4.acoger (to welcome/ take in) derruir (to demolish) justificar (to justify) 5.acordar (hacer algo) (to agree to) desandar (to go back over) juzgar (to judge) 6.acostarse (to go to bed) desaprobar (to disapprove of) lanzar (to throw/ hurl/ launch/ heave) 7.actuar (to act) descender (to go down) lanzar (to throw/ to fling) 8.adelgazar (to lose weight) descontar (to deduct) liar (to tie up/ to wrap/ to roll) 9.agradecer (to thank) deshacer (to undo/ to unpack) llegar (to arrive) 10.agregar (to add) despertar (to wake/ to arouse) llover (to rain) 11.agriar (to turn sour) destituir (to dismiss) madrugar (to get up early) 12.aguar (to water down) destruir (to destroy/ to wreck) maltraer (to maltreat) 13.alcanzar (to reach) desvariar (to be delirious) marcar (to mark) 14.alentar (to encourage) detener (to arrest/ to stop) mascar (to chew) 15.alzar (to lift/ raise/ hoist) devenir en (to become/ to turn into) mascar (to chew) 16.amanecer (to dawn) devolver algo (give something back) memorizar (to memorize) 17.amordazar (to gag/ muzzle) digerir (to digest/ to assimilate) mentar (to mention) 18.analizar (to analyze) diluir (to dilute) mentir (to lie) 19.andar (to walk) disminuir (to reduce/ to decrease) morder (to bite/ to eat into) 20.apaciguar (to calm down) disolver (to dissolve/ to break up) morir (to die) 21.apagar (to put out/ to put off) distraer (to amuse/ to entertain) mostrar (to show) 22.aparcar (to park/ to shelf) distribuir (to distribute) obtener (to get/ to win) 23.aparecer (to appear/ show up) divertir (to entertain/ to amuse) oír (to hear) 24.aprobar (to approve) doler (to hurt) pedir (to ask for/ to order) 25.atender (to attend to) dormir (to put to bed) pensar (to think) 26.aterrizar (to land) dormirse (to go to bed) perder (to lose) 27.aterrorizar (to terrorize) edificar (to build) perpetuar (to perpetuate) 28.atestiguar (to testify to) electrificar (to electrify) picar (to bite) 29.averiguar (to find out) empezar (to begin/ to start) platicar (to chat) 30.blocar (to block) encender (to light/ to inflame) poder (to be able to) 31.caer (to fall) encerrar (to shut up/ to shut in) preferir (to prefer) 32.calentar (to heat up/ to warm up) encoger (to shrink) prevaler (to prevail) 33.castigar (to punish) encontrar (to find/ to encounter) prevenir (to prevent) 34.cazar (to hunt) engrosar (to swell) provenir de (to come from) 35.certificar (to confirm) enviar (to send) provocar (to incite) 36.chocar (to crash) envolver (to wrap up/ to wind) punzar (to prick/ to stab) 37.civilizar (to civilize) escoger (to choose) quebrar (to break) 38.clarificar (to clarify) espiar (to spy on) querer (to want) 39.coger (to take) esquiar (to ski) recaer (to relapse) 40.comenzar (to start/ to begin) estar (to be ) recoger (to pick up) compareceer (to appear) expedir (to send/ to dispatch) reconstruir (to rebuild) complicar (to complicate) explicar (to explain) recordar (to remember) conceptuar (to consider/ to judge) extender (to stretch out) referir (to tell/ recount) concordar (to agree/ to reconcile) extenuar (to exhaust/ to drain) refrescar (to refresh/ to chill) confesar (to confess) extraer (to extract) rehacer (to do again/ to rebuild) confiar (to confide) fabricar (to manufacture/ to build) rehuir (to avoid) confluir (to converge/ to meet) falsificar (to forge) rozar (to rub/ to brush/ to graze) conocer (to know) fatigar (to tire/ to weary) saber (to know) consentir (to allow/ to permit) fluir (to flow) sacar (to take out) construir (to build/ manufacture) fotografiar (to take a photograph) salir (to go out) contar (to count/ to tell) fraguar (to forge) satisfacer (to satisfy/ to quench) contener (to contain/ to restrain) generalizar (to spread/ generalize) sentar (to sit/ to seat) continuar (to continue) gozar (to enjoy) sostener (to support) contraer (to contract/ to acquire) hacer (to do/ to make) suplicar (to plead) contribuir (to contribute) halagar (to flatter) tocar (to touch) convenir (to be suitable) henchir (to fill/ to fill up) traer (to bring) costar (to cost) hervir (to boil) tragar (to swallow) cotizar (to quote/ to price) impedir (to prevent) tronar (to thundar) crecer (to grow) incluir (to include) unificar (to unite) criar (to breed) influir (to influence) utilizar (to use) cualificar (to qualify) insinuar (to insinuate) valer (to value) dar (to give) intensificar (to intensify)